Past Participle Marking in Mediaeval English. A Corpus Based Study in Historical Morphology


Warsaw Studies in English Historical Linguistics, Volume 3

Author: Anna Wojtyś


Æ Academic Publishing

The first comprehensive study of changes in past participle marking in Mediaeval English and an attempt to solve a mystery of ge- disappearance in English past participles.


The monograph is the first comprehensive study of changes in past participle marking in Mediaeval English. Before the shape of the past participle as we know it was established, the historical form used to be marked redundantly, attaching both the appropriate suffix and the prefix ge-.  The study establishes temporal and geographical conditioning for the loss of prefixal marking as well as the relation between the suffixation and prefixation.  As such, it shall be of great interest especially to all those researching in English historical grammar, but also to readers attracted to dialectal studies.


Published in






Jerzy Wełna


2nd, reprint


978-1-68346-121-0, 978-1-68346-122-7, 978-1-68346-123-4, 978-1-68346-124-1

# of pages



perfect bound with gate-folds


140 x 215 mm


0.35 kg

Table of Contents

List of Figuresviii
List of Tablesix
1 Introduction
1.0 Aims of the work1
1.1 Method of research2
1.2 Defining the past participle4
1.3 Corpora5
1.4 Selection of texts6
1.5 Previous studies on the subject7
1.6 Origins of past participle marking13
1.7 Prefixes attached to the past participle and their meaning13
1.8 Evolution of -ge14
1.9 Reasons for the loss of prefixal marking14
1.10 Temporal boundaries of the study15
1.11 Dialectal division16
1.12 Summary16
2 Old English
2.0 Introductory remarks17
2.1 Old English past participle marking17
2.2 Old English corpus18
2.3 Importance of the Northumbrian dialect18
2.4 Northumbrian texts19
2.4.1 Short poems19
2.4.2 Durham Ritual20
2.4.3 Lindisfarne Gospels24
2.4.4 Rushworth Gospels28
2.4.5 Lindisfarne Gospels and Ru2 confronted33
2.4.6 Ru134
2.4.7 Northumbrian: summary and conclusions38
2.5 Mercian39
2.6 Kentish43
2.7 West Saxon43
2.7.1 Parker Chronicle44
2.7.2 Alfred’s translations45
2.7.3 Late West Saxon: Ælfric’s Homilies48
2.7.4 Beowulf49
2.7.5 West Saxon: summary and conclusions50
2.8 Old English: concluding remarks51
3 The Northern dialect
3.1 Introductory remarks55
3.2 Early Northern data55
3.3 Northern data (14c)57
3.4 Northern data (15c)61
3.5 Two types of marking in the North74
3.6 Past participles in the North: concluding remarks77
4 The Midlands
4.1 Introductory remarks79
4.2 Midland data79
4.3 Early West Midland data80
4.4 West Midland data (14c)88
4.5 West Midland data (15c)93
4.6 Two types of marking in the West Midlands101
4.7 Early East Midland data104
4.8 East Midland data (14c)111
4.9 East Midland data (15c)115
4.10 Two types of marking in the East Midlands122
4.11 London speech128
4.12 Two types of marking in London141
4.13 Past participle marking in the Midlands: concluding remarks147
5 The Southern dialects
5.1 Introductory remarks151
5.2 Early Southern data151
5.3 Southern data (13c)152
5.4 Southern data (14c)157
5.5 Southern data (15c)162
5.6 Two types of marking in the South176
5.7 Kentish dialect182
5.8 Two types of marking in Kentish190
5.9 Southern dialects: concluding remarks192
6 Conclusions
6.1 Chronology of the elimination of prefixal marking195
6.2 Suffixal marking197
6.3 Two types of marking: the dialectal perspective199
6.4 Factors examined201
6.5 Final conclusions203


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