piotr-chruszczewski

Piotr Chruszczewski

Prof. Piotr P. Chruszczewski, a scholar of English and American studies, specializing in anthropological linguistics, to include studies of text, translation, writing and language.

Head of the College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Wrocław; chairman of the Committee for Philology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław Branch; holder of grants from the Foundation for Polish Science, Fulbright Commission, and the Lanckoroński Foundation.

Prof. Chruszczewski is a truly international scholar who has conducted research at numerous academic centers in cooperation with or studying under, a. o., Ronald Langacker at the University of California, San Diego; Alessandro Duranti at the University of California, Los Angeles; and Michael Barnes at the University College, London. He also spent time at Stanford University and the University of North Carolina, Greensboro; as well as the British Library, London. He has guest lectured or conducted research in Austria (Salzburg), Denmark (Aarhus, Copenhagen), Spain (Alicante), Israel (Jerusalem), Malta (La Valetta), Germany (Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, Magdeburg), Romania (Bacau, Bucharest), Switzerland (Lugano), Sweden (Örebro, Stockholm), the US (Los Angeles, San Diego, Stanford, Washington), Great Britain (London, Oxford), and Italy (Bergamo, Bologna, Florence, Genoa, Milan, Modena, Pavia, Rome, Verona).

His monographs include Językoznawstwo antropologiczne. Zadania i metody [Anthropological Linguistics. Tasks and Methods of Research] (2011); Cultural Patterns in Discursive Practices of Scandinavian Speech Communities in the Viking Age. On the Basis of Runic Inscriptions of North-Central Jutland (2006); American Presidential Discourse. An Analysis (2003) and The Communicational Grammar of Political Discourse (2002). He is an editor or co-editor of sixteen monographs and in-house editor of four scientific periodicals (Academic Journal of Modern Philology, Styles of Communication, Półrocznik Językoznawczy TERTIUM, Studia Anglica Resoviensia). He is also the originator and organizer of the international conference Languages in Contact.

He is a fellow at the International Communicology Institute (since 2011) and a founding member of the Polish Society for Human and Evolution Studies, established in 2013 in Wrocław. He has provided expertise for domestic and foreign government institutions. Since 2015 he is the Rector’s representative for the talented youth, actively promoting advanced interdisciplinary research.

 

BL01

Między tekstem a kulturą: Z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa

“Między tekstem a kulturą: Z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa” [Between the text and culture: on translation studies] is the first volume in the new series Beyond Language, published under the auspices of College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Wrocław.

This voluminous collection opens the door to translation theory in the Polish perspective, its practice and applications in history and modern times, inviting discussion from the most eminent Polish scholars across the disciplines. Arranged in four major parts (1. Translation theory in historical perspective; 2. Religion in translation – historical and modern perspectives; 3. From theory to practice; 4. Applications, cf. Table of Contents), the material will be of interest to both academics researching translation as a discipline and translators practicing the craft.

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Our Authors

Univ. of Toulon, France

Frédéric Armao

Frédéric Armao is currently an associate professor at the University of Toulon (France). His primary research focuses on the link between Irish folklore (both modern and contemporary) and Celtic mythology. His work has examined the evolution of Irish calendar festivals from their pre-Christian beginnings through their syncretic contemporary celebration. His forthcoming book, Uisneach or the Center of Ireland, will be published by Routledge and is prefaced by Michael D. Higgins.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Uisneach: from the Ancient Assembly to the Fire Festival 2017.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 137‒160.

The ancient Irish year used to be divided into four seasons, each beginning with a specific festival. The ancient Irish texts do mention those four festivals (Samhain, Imbolc, Bealtaine, and Lughnasadh) and connect them with many mythological and (pseudo-)historical events. For instance, there apparently used to be an Assembly on the hill of Uisneach (Co. Westmeath) at the time of the festival of Bealtaine, that is the beginning of summer, where men gathered around the king or kings to settle important matters. Uisneach was also the place where, according to some traditions, the first fire of Ireland was lit. For centuries, the Assembly of Uisneach has been virtually forgotten. However, a renewed form of gathering is now held on the hill of Uisneach in early May. The “Fire Festival of Uisneach,” as it is called, is a popular festival where thousands of people (families, neo-pagans, or Celtic enthusiasts) gather. I had the chance to attend the festival on May 6, 2017. Both the ancient Assembly and the contemporary celebration will be accounted for and compared in order to understand the evolution of the gathering of Uisneach through centuries.

webpage:http://fredericarmao.wordpress.com

WSB University in Poznań, Poland

Magdalena Bator

Magdalena Bator is a professor at the Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa‒WSB University in Poznań, Poland, where she teaches linguistics. Her main fields of research are English historical linguistics, early culinary recipes (in English, German, and Polish), language contact and borrowing.

Published with Æ Academic:

Radosław Dylewski, ――, Joanna Rabęda (2020) ““I remain(s)” and “but remain(s)”: Variation in the use of the 3rd person singular marker in American private letters from the mid-19th century.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 417‒444.

The present paper focuses on the analysis of the formulaic expressions with the verb remain, which were used as letter closing formulae in private correspondence during the American Civil War. Sequences comprising one of the phrases: I/we remain(s) and but/only/so/still/etc. remain(s) were scrutinized in order to verify whether Dylewski’s claim (2018) that the origin of the two types of formulae took different paths of development holds true as regards highly homogenous material produced by uneducated writers. The study was based on over four thousand letters written by soldiers and their relatives, compiled and digitized in Private Voices on-line repository.

Adam Mickiewicz Univ. in Poznań, Poland

Dominika Buchowska

Dominika Buchowska is the author of “A Sense of Form”: The Art of David Bomberg (2015), and Negotiating Modernism: Art Criticism in The New Age 1907–1922 (2019). She is an assistant professor at the Department of English Literature and Literary Linguistics at the Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland, where she teaches English Literature and Culture. Her research interests are British modernist and avant­-garde art and literature, little magazines, art criticism, as well as connections between poetry and painting. She has written a number of publications on the formation of the London avant-­garde at around 1914, the art of David Bomberg, the “Whitechapel Boys,” Vorticism, Polish Futurism, the art and poetry of the Great War.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Medieval modernism and The New Age magazine: creating modernity while turning to the past.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 395‒414.

Modernism is generally understood as a highly innovative cultural movement which openly promoted a breach from the past, rejecting tradition, undermining accepted norms and conventions. Yet within the broad spectrum of modernist groups there was a formation which did not adhere to these “standards” and could still be considered modernist. Medieval modernists looked back to the Middle Ages for inspiration in the communal and spiritual values of life, artisanal methods of work as well as harmonious co-operation, all of which were absent in the contemporary world, and which they wanted to reinstate. The New Age magazine edited by A. R. Orage between 1907‒1922 boldly embraced the ideas of medieval modernism while remaining a thoroughly innovative and modern publication. The editor and several other contributors came from the provincial north, infusing cosmopolitan London with their own values associated with positivism, didacticism and functionalism of art, literature and culture – which were now lost in the capital where formalism was propagated. In an idealist vein Orage’s aim was to appeal to the working classes to educate and elevate them, and to restore the connection between art and life. Yet it was Huntley Carter’s art criticism that openly promoted medieval modernist views, calling artists, designers and architects to abandon the enthusiastic trust in modernist machinery, and to turn away from imitation, rationality and convention, and return to the more romantic, personal and authentic methods of art-making prevalent in the Middle Ages. On the other hand, elsewhere in the magazine, Carter also wrote articles supporting the highly avant-gardist art and culture, publishing himself the first Cubist image by Picasso to ever appear in Britain in the autumn of 1911. Such apparent inconsistencies were, nevertheless, in line with modernism itself which endorsed oppositional and conflicting viewpoints in order to provoke discussion and vivid exchange of opinion in the public sphere, and were thus eagerly taken up by a magazine such as The New Age.

University of Opole, Poland

Katarzyna Buczek

Katarzyna Buczek studied at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Institute of English Studies, where she was awarded a doctoral degree. Her research interests include historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, minority languages. She has published mainly on the history of English and Frisian with the focus on lexis, morphology and phonology. She is a Vice-­Chair of the Committee for Philology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocław Branch. She is employed at the University of Opole, Poland.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “For and against Anglo-Frisian: the linguistic debate on the matter.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 245‒274.

The relationship between Old English and Old Frisian, and the possible existence of their Anglo-Frisian proto-language, has been the subject of scholarly investigation for a long time. For those who accept the traditional comparative method for detecting the genetic relationships between languages, both Old English and Old Frisian arose due to some regular language changes from a common Anglo-Frisian ancestor. Nevertheless, the notion of Anglo-Frisian is not regarded as self-evident by all linguists. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the existing arguments for and against the Anglo-Frisian hypothesis. Firstly, it will be the purpose of the paper to outline various linguistic approaches to the investigation of Anglo-Frisian relations, which have appeared since the late medieval times. The second part of the article will be devoted to the analysis of morphological and phonological innovations of Old English and Old Frisian and the presentation of possible interpretations of these innovative changes. In the third part of the paper, the notion of common Anglo-Frisian runic innovations will be presented simultaneously with the possible distribution of Anglo-Frisian runes based on the archaeological findings.

Philological Sch. of Higher Ed., Wrocław, PL

Aleksander Brzózka

Mgr Aleksander Brzózka jest literaturoznawcą, teoretykiem przekładu, wykładowcą oraz tłumaczem. Przedmioty które wykłada to m.in. tłumaczenia specjalistyczne: techniczne oraz tłumaczenia specjalistyczne: narzędzia komputerowe CAT. Do zainteresowań badawczych autora należą teoria i praktyka przekładu literatury dla dzieci i dla dorosłych, anglojęzyczna literatura dziecięca, dydaktyka języka technicznego oraz techniki audiowizualne w nauczaniu języka angielskiego jako obcego. Aleksander Brzózka zajmuje się również tłumaczeniem artykułów naukowych i referatów konferencyjnych z zakresu architektury, budownictwa, energetyki, mechaniki, górnictwa oraz inżynierii środowiska. W 2010 roku ukazał się jego artykuł „Representations of female characters in adaptations of Macbeth for children and their Polish translations”. Do osiągnięć autora można zaliczyć tłumaczenie telekonferencji pomiędzy partnerami biznesowymi w Polsce i Iraku (maj, 2006).

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Przetłumacz mi książeczkę: Kilka słów o przekładzie literatury dziecięcej i młodzieżowej tylko dla dorosłych.” | “Translate Me a Book: A Few Words Regarding Translation of Children’s and Teenage Literature For Adults Only.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 300–322.

W niniejszym tekście autor porusza kwestie badań nad literaturą dziecięcą w przekładzie. Analizuje tu czternaście polskich wersji powieści zatytułowanej Przygody Tomka Sawyera. Według obserwacji autora tłumacze manipulują tekstem, co powoduje, iż dzieciom i młodzieży, czyli jego głównym odbiorcom docelowym, przedstawia się wartości oraz normy odpowiadające wartościom dominującym aktualnie w danej kulturze. Co więcej, w artykule przedstawiono różne aspekty dotyczące praw tłumacza do własnego zdania i wartościowania. Autor wskazuje, że programowany kulturowo głos tłumacza tylko częściowo należy do niego, choć nie dyskredytuje przy tym możliwości powstawania kolejnych przekładów. Wręcz przeciwnie, zwraca uwagę na niepowtarzalność każdego z tłumaczeń. Z jego analizy wynika jednak, iż w każdym przekładzie tłumacze dopuszczali się manipulacji tekstem zarówno na poziomie ideologicznym, jak i osobistej postawy.

The following article focuses on ideology and power relations involved in the act of translating children’s literature. It is proposed that discussions within the theory of CLTS be shifted away from questions of how to produce better translations by avoiding manipulation to focusing on how manipulation and ideology work in translated texts for children. A series of fourteen Polish translations of Mark Twain’s Adventures of Tom Sawyer is used to show the influence that the translator’s ideosomatic and idiosomatic programming has on handling offensive and religious expressions. The extensive data collected allows for a detailed synchronic and diachronic analysis, which proves that although vocabulary considered inappropriate varies relative to both ideological and individual aspects, not a single translation avoids some degree of manipulation; reflecting both contemporary ideology and personal attitude.

University of Navarre, Pamplona, Spain

Andrew Breeze

Andrew Breeze (b. 1954), MA, PhD, FRHistS, FSA, was educated at Sir Roger Manwood’s School, Sandwich, and at Oxford and Cambridge universities. Married, with six children, he has taught since 1987 at the University of Navarre, Pamplona. He has published widely on English and Celtic philology, his most recent book being British Battles 493–937: Mount Badon to Brunanburh (Anthem Press, 2020).

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Cornish symptoms in the Old English Orosius.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 139‒149.

The Old English Orosius (subject of Jacek Fisiak’s earliest academic paper) continues to attract controversy. King Alfred’s authorship was first doubted in 1951; in 1980 it was rejected without hesitation by Janet Bately in her classic edition of the text. More problematic has been the nationality of the unknown translator. Unique features in the spelling of names have been taken to indicate a non-native speaker, whether from the European Continent or from Celtic Britain, dictating to a West Saxon scribe, who uncomprehendingly wrote down these names as he heard them pronounced by the translator. The present writer in Notes and Queries papers of the early 1990s argued further that the translator was certainly a Briton, but not a Welshman, and therefore surely a Cornishman. Crucial here is consistent use of the form Ercol ‘Hercules’, which must be Cornish or Breton, and not Ercul, as it would be in Old Welsh. This hypothesis was strengthened by Malcolm Godden’s later discovery of an Old Cornish gloss in a Vatican manuscript of Boethius from Alfred’s circle. In the light of this, Professor Bately’s view in a paper of 2017 that the translator was a Welshman can be ruled out. Any informed Celticist will confirm that Ercol is a tell-tale Cornish form, implying a Cornishman as translator. The implications for learning in ninth-century Cornwall, as demonstrated by the wealth of additions to the Latin text, are therefore considerable. Further research on them will revolutionize our knowledge of learning and literature in the Cornwall of Alfred’s day.

 

University of Łódź, Poland

Łukasz Bogucki

Prof. dr hab. Łukasz Bogucki jest dyrektorem Instytutu Anglistyki Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, a także kierownikiem Zakładu Translatoryki. Współpracował z kilkudziesięcioma uczelniami krajowymi i zagranicznymi w ramach umów partnerskich i projektów międzynarodowych. W roku 2014 uzyskał tytuł
profesora nauk humanistycznych, a w 2017 stanowisko profesora zwyczajnego. Jego zainteresowania naukowe dotyczą przede wszystkim teorii przekładu audiowizualnego, ale także translatoryki jako dyscypliny naukowej, przekładu ustnego i specjalistycznego, tłumaczenia wspomaganego komputerowo
oraz lokalizacji. Jest autorem czterech książek, redaktorem lub współredaktorem pięciu prac zbiorowych oraz autorem ponad pięćdziesięciu artykułów i rozdziałów w monografiach. Zorganizował kilkanaście konferencji międzynarodowych poświęconych przekładowi. Wziął udział w kilkudziesięciu konferencjach, w tym wielokrotnie na zaproszenie jako mówca plenarny. Jest także cenionym dydaktykiem przekładu i promotorem prac dyplomowych, których od roku 2002 prowadził ponad sto pięćdziesiąt. Wypromował pięcioro doktorów i zrecenzował kilkanaście rozpraw doktorskich oraz wniosków
habilitacyjnych. Jest członkiem International Communication Association, Łódzkiego Towarzystwa Naukowego oraz łódzkiej sekcji PAN. Od roku 2014 współredaguje serię wydawniczą Lodz Studies in Language, ukazującą się nakładem wydawnictwa Peter Lang.

Published with Æ Academic:

――, Mikołaj Deckert (2018) “Badanie preferencji dotyczących przekładu audiowizualnego wśród polskich widzów” | “Polish Audience Preferences Regarding Audiovisual Translation: A Reception Study.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 252–267.

Artykuł jest próbą lepszego zrozumienia mechanizmów recepcji materiału audiowizualnego poddawanego przekładowi międzyjęzykowemu z wykorzystaniem napisów, wersji lektorskiej oraz dubbingu. Omawiamy tu wyniki badania kwestionariuszowego, którego celem było zidentyfikowanie kluczowych wzorców w odbiorze przekładu audiowizualnego w Polsce. Badanie obejmowało różne metody tłumaczenia i uwzględniało szeregu parametrów potencjalnie kształtujących doświadczenia i preferencje widzów. Czynniki podzielono na pięć kategorii obejmujących relację między
oryginałem a przekładem, wysiłek poznawczy, specyfikę danego typu filmu (np. film dokumentalny, serial komediowy), czynniki warunkujące dobór metody tłumaczenia, oraz postęp technologiczny jako potencjalny bodziec do zmian zachowań widzów. Jednocześnie w ramach grupy badanych wyróżniamy trzy profile respondentów – odpowiadające trzem kierunkom studiów – co pozwala rzucić dodatkowe światło na omawiane zagadnienia.

The article looks into how audiovisual material is received by the audience as films are rendered from one language to another with the use of subtitles, voice-over, or dubbing. Reported here is a questionnaire-based study whose aim was to identify the key patterns in the reception of Audiovisual Translation (AVT) in Poland. The study investigates different AVT modes and incorporates a range of parameters that could be shaping viewer experience and preferences. The factors are divided into five categories, such as the source text-target text relationship, cognitive effort, the nature of a given film type (e.g. a documentary, a comedy series), variables that condition the choice of a translation mode, as well as technological advances as a possible incentive changing viewer behavior. Also, within our pool of subjects, we discern three respondent profiles – corresponding to three university specializations – which make it possible to shed added light on the article’s central constructs.

John Paul II Catholic U. of Lublin, Poland

Magdalena Charzyńska

Prof. KUL dr hab. Magdalena Charzyńska-Wójcik jest obecnie Dziekanem Wydziału Nauk Humanistycznych. Zawodowo zajmuje się historią języka angielskiego od VIII do XV wieku. Staro- i średnioangielska składnia to tylko jedno z wielu zainteresowań tegorocznej laureatki plebiscytu „Kobiety na medal”. Od momentu, gdy podjęła pracę na KUL w 1994 roku, wypromowała blisko stu magistrów. Obok pracy dydaktycznej zorganizowała od podstaw i przez dziesięć lat koordynowała niestacjonarne studia filologii angielskiej II stopnia, które od pierwszego roku funkcjonowania cieszą się niesłabnącą popularnością. Aktualnie z jej inicjatywy Wydział Nauk Humanistycznych promuje wśród przedszkolaków czytelnictwo w ramach akcji „Cały dziekanat czyta dzieciom”. Jej zainteresowania naukowe to konstrukcje bezosobowe w historii języka angielskiego, status podmiotu w historii języka angielskiego, syntaksy staro- i średnioangielskich czasowników doznaniowych, pasywizacja w historii języka angielskiego, typologia czasowników staroangielskich, językowe, edukacyjne i kulturowe aspekty recepcji i translacji psałterza w średniowiecznej i renesansowej Anglii, szkocki psałterz metryczny, średniowieczny multilingwizm, semantyka historyczna, monastycyzm średniowieczny, kodykologia, paleografia.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Między przekładem wiernym a parafrazą: Wpływ czynników socjolingwistycznych na dobór techniki tłumacza” | “Between Metaphrase and Paraphrase: The Influence of Sociolinguistic Factors on the Translators Techniques.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 96–151.

Przedmiotem artykułu jest analiza tłumaczenia psałterza na język angielski dokonanego przez Richarda Rolle’a i polski przekład autorstwa Walentego Wróbla. Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia analizę czynników warunkujących wybór techniki tłumacza tekstu biblijnego. Poszczególne sekcje opisują kontekst socjolingwistyczny, w jakim tłumaczenia powstały, a także przedstawiają techniki zastosowane przez tłumaczy. Średniowieczny stosunek do tłumaczenia tekstów świętych wydaje się mieć znikomy wpływ na wybór techniki przekładu. Stąd wniosek, że o stylu przekładu nie przesądza kontekst kulturowy, postrzegany jako stosunek do tłumaczenia tekstów świętych. Adresat wpłynął na ostateczną formę przekazywanego tekstu, choć w żaden sposób nie wpłynął on na dobór techniki przekładu.

The aim of the article is to analyze two Psalter translations, translation by Richard Rolle into English, and by Walanty Wróbel into Polish, in order to determine factors which may have influenced the translator’s choice of translation techniques. Subsequent sections describe the sociolinguistic context of the times when the translations originated, the target language, as well as translation techniques used to obtain the target text. Medieval attitudes towards translated texts seem to have had almost no influence on the choice of a translation technique; thus, the author draws an elicit assumption that the translation style had no correlation with the cultural context, understood as a special attitude towards religious texts. The addressee had an influence on the final shape of translation, but they did not influence specific translation techniques used to render the text.

University of Wrocław, Poland

Alicja Cimała

Alicja Cimała – filolog angielski i historyk sztuki, doktorantka na Wydziale Filologicznym Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. W roku 2016 opublikowała artykuł “On the translation of English and Polish terms selected from the field of urban monument revitalisation.”

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Problematyka przekładu The Getty’s Research Institute Art and Architecture Thesaurus na język polski” | “Problems with translating The Getty’s Research Institute Art and Architecture Thesaurus into Polish.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 445–458.

Niniejszy artykuł skupia się na wybranej terminologii dotyczącej wnętrz chrześcijańskich budowli sakralnych – pulpitów, ołtarzy, chrzcielnic, empor, galerii, naw. Definicje wymienionych terminów pochodzą z The Getty’s Research Institute Art and Architecture Thesaurus. Zostały one porównane z polskimi słownikami i literaturą w celu stwierdzenia, czy możliwe jest przetłumaczenie amerykańskiego słownika i stworzenie funkcjonalnego wielojęzykowego tezaurusa dla polskich użytkowników. Terminy te są problematyczne w tłumaczeniu, ponieważ ich pola semantyczne nie pokrywają się do końca ze sobą. Powyższe problemy można rozwiązać poprzez rozszerzenie lub ograniczenie pól semantycznych polskich terminów, dodanie nowych fraz lub zapożyczeń do języka polskiego, dodanie opisów w nawiasach do rekordów i ich opisów, dodanie miejsca powstania lub połączenie wszystkich powyższych sposobów. Przeanalizowane zostały również problemy występujące w samym tezaurusie The Getty’s Research Institute.

This article focuses on the selected terminology from the field of Christian sacral building interiors – pulpits, altars, baptismal fonts, galleries, triforiums, tribune (stories), and naves. Definitions of the listed terms are extracted from The Getty’s Research Institute Art and Architecture Thesaurus and then compared with Polish dictionaries and literature in order to examine whether it is possible to translate the American dictionary and create a functional multilingual thesaurus for Polish users. The terms pose several problems in translation since none of their semantic fields completely overlap. The said problems may be overcome by: stretching or limiting the semantic fields of the Polish terms, adding new phrases or borrowings to the Polish language, adding descriptions in parentheses to the records and descriptions of the said records, adding the place of origin, or a combination of all the ideas presented above. The article also discusses problematic issues with The Getty’s Research Institute Art and Architecture Thesaurus itself.

ALBION, Translation Agency

Ryszard Chojnowski

Ryszard Chojnowski jest tłumaczem i dialogistą gier komputerowych, założycielem firmy Albion Localisations. Z wykształcenia jest anglistą zajmującym się tłumaczeniem od blisko dwudziestu lat. Jego zainteresowania obejmują wszystko, co związane jest z grami. Znany w swoim otoczeniu jako Rysław,
zajmuje się również nagrywaniem audycji radiowych i prowadzeniem swojego kanału na serwisie YouTube. Do jego najważniejszych osiągnięć należą tłumaczenia gier takich jak Diablo, Fallout, Battlefield, znanych na rynku gier. Obecnie pracuje nad rozprawą doktorską i wciąż zajmuje się rozwojem
w swojej dziedzinie zainteresowań.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Lokalizacja gier – głos praktyka” | “Game Localization – The Practical Side.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 268–298.

Celem pracy jest wnikliwa analiza procesu lokalizacji gier komputerowych. Artykuł zawiera szczegółowy opis procesu lokalizacji. Ważnym elementem podobnych tłumaczeń jest to, że tłumacz musi zmierzyć się z wieloma problemami, takimi jak brak dostępu do pełnej wersji gry. Autor artykułu stara się jednak przybliżyć odbiorcy rozwiązania, które sam stosuje. Dodatkową, cenną zamieszczoną tu informacją jest opis narzędzi wspomagających tłumaczenie (CAT) – dzięki nim przekładanie gier staje się łatwiejsze. Celem artykułu jest pokazanie różnorodności tekstów – dialogi, interfejs, komunikaty czy piosenki, wiersze, a nawet rymowanki – które tłumacz musi wziąć pod uwagę, a także doprecyzowanie terminu „lokalizacja gry”. Niniejszy artykuł stanowi punkt wyjścia dla osób zainteresowanych tłumaczeniem gier komputerowych, co nie jest sprawą tak prostą, jak mogłoby się
zdawać laikowi.

The aim of this article is a thorough analysis of game localization, including an indepth description of the localization process in its complexity. The fact is that game translators have to deal with a number of obstacles, such as the lack of the full version of the game, thus missing access to some necessary information. The author presents some real solutions that may enable the translator to face such hindrance. A valuable asset is the detailed presentation of computer tools (CAT), including Trados or Wordfast, which aid game localization and limit the translator’s struggles to the text only, eliminating technical obstacles. Another purpose of the article is to present a variety of text types which the translator has to face: dialogues, interface text, lyrics or rhymed poetry, to show how important comprehensive knowledge is in this profession. The article constitutes a starting point for all
those interested in game localization, which may prove more complex than one might assume.

University of Łódź, Poland

Mikołaj Deckert

Dr Mikołaj Deckert jest adiunktem w Zakładzie Translatoryki Instytutu Anglistyki Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego. Jego zainteresowania naukowe obejmują przekład, związki między językiem a poznaniem, dyskurs medialny, pragmatykę językową i językoznawstwo korpusowe. Jest autorem monografii Meaning in Subtitling: Toward a Contrastive Cognitive Semantic Model oraz współredaktorem tomów poświęconych dydaktyce przekładu oraz przekładowi audiowizualnemu. Współorganizował liczne międzynarodowe konferencje naukowe. Ostatnio realizowane przez niego projekty badawcze to: CLARIN: Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure, Percepcja czasu jako kategorii językowej, Przemiany w postrzeganiu rzeczywistości a język nowych mediów, Time In MEntaL activitY: theoretical, behavioral, bioimaging, and clinical perspectives (TIMELY) oraz Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies.

Published with Æ Academic:

Łukasz Bogucki, ―― (2018) “Badanie preferencji dotyczących przekładu audiowizualnego wśród polskich widzów” | “Polish Audience Preferences Regarding Audiovisual Translation: A Reception Study.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 252–267.

Artykuł jest próbą lepszego zrozumienia mechanizmów recepcji materiału audiowizualnego poddawanego przekładowi międzyjęzykowemu z wykorzystaniem napisów, wersji lektorskiej oraz dubbingu. Omawiamy tu wyniki badania kwestionariuszowego, którego celem było zidentyfikowanie kluczowych wzorców w odbiorze przekładu audiowizualnego w Polsce. Badanie obejmowało różne metody tłumaczenia i uwzględniało szeregu parametrów potencjalnie kształtujących doświadczenia i preferencje widzów. Czynniki podzielono na pięć kategorii obejmujących relację między
oryginałem a przekładem, wysiłek poznawczy, specyfikę danego typu filmu (np. film dokumentalny, serial komediowy), czynniki warunkujące dobór metody tłumaczenia, oraz postęp technologiczny jako potencjalny bodziec do zmian zachowań widzów. Jednocześnie w ramach grupy badanych wyróżniamy trzy profile respondentów – odpowiadające trzem kierunkom studiów – co pozwala rzucić dodatkowe światło na omawiane zagadnienia.

The article looks into how audiovisual material is received by the audience as films are rendered from one language to another with the use of subtitles, voice-over, or dubbing. Reported here is a questionnaire-based study whose aim was to identify the key patterns in the reception of Audiovisual Translation (AVT) in Poland. The study investigates different AVT modes and incorporates a range of parameters that could be shaping viewer experience and preferences. The factors are divided into five categories, such as the source text-target text relationship, cognitive effort, the nature of a given film type (e.g. a documentary, a comedy series), variables that condition the choice of a translation mode, as well as technological advances as a possible incentive changing viewer behavior. Also, within our pool of subjects, we discern three respondent profiles – corresponding to three university specializations – which make it possible to shed added light on the article’s central constructs.

University of Szczecin, Poland

Michał Czajkowski

Ks. prof. dr hab. Michał Franciszek Czajkowski – prezbiter archidiecezji wrocławskiej, profesor biblistyki Nowego Testamentu. Autor publikacji z zakresu teologii biblijnej. Od 2009 publikuje w “Tygodniku Powszechnym”.

Published with Æ Academic:

Marcin Majewski, Artur Sporniak, Teresa Szostek, ―― (2018) “Cenzura w Biblii” | “Censorship in the Bible.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 166–183.

Artykuł skupia się na analizie wywiadu dotyczącego przekładu Biblii oraz związanej z nim cenzury. Autorka komentuje wypowiedzi jednego z rozmówców wzbogacając je o własne przemyślenia i analizy. Tłumacze Pisma Świętego łagodzą niektóre fragmenty, jak chociażby refren w Pieśni nad Pieśniami, który w większości przekładów wspomina „obejmowanie”, podczas gdy Biblia protestancka zawiera właściwy przekład, mówiąc o pieszczeniu. Podobnie tłumacze poprawiają Biblię, mając inne wyobrażenie o tym jak powinien wyglądać tekst sakralny, wprowadzają na przykład wyrażenia neutralne zamiast wulgaryzmów. Według Czajkowskiego tłumacze często cenzurują Biblię, próbując złagodzić tekst. Czasami rozbieżności wynikają jednak z niezrozumienia tekstu biblijnego. Nie zawsze jednak różnice w tłumaczeniach wynikają z pracy tłumacza. Jest tak na przykład w przypadku słowa „pneuma”, które może oznaczać ducha, słowo pisane małą literą, lub Ducha Świętego. Autor nie popiera jednak tłumaczenia „inkluzywnego”. Tekstu natchnionego nie powinno się zmieniać. Zmiany tego typu można zastąpić wyjaśnieniami czy komentarzami. Aby odkryć pierwotne znaczenie Pisma Świętego najlepiej jest porównać jeden z przekładów polskich z przekładami obcojęzycznymi lub innymi przekładami polskimi.

The article focuses on the analysis of an interview regarding Bible translation and related censorship. The author comments on the statements of one of the interlocutors, adding her own insights and analyses. Bible translators make certain parts of the text more approachable, as was the case with the refrain to Song of Songs, which, in most translations, mentions “embracing” while the protestant Bible contains the correct translation, i.e. “caressing.” Similarly, translators correct the Bible, as they have a different notion of what a sacral text should look like. For example, they introduce neutral phrases instead of offensive words. In Czajkowski’s opinion, translators often censor the Bible, trying to make the text less blunt. However, sometimes discrepancies are a result of not understanding the original text. Not always are these differences a consequence of the translator’s work, though. It is clearly visible e.g. in the case of “pneuma,” a word which can be translated into ghost or soul, spelled with a small letter, or the Holy Ghost. The author does not support the so-called “inclusive” translation. The inspired text should not be changed. Such changes can be replaced with explanations or comments. In order to discover the original meaning of the Holy Scripture, one can compare one of the Polish translations with translations into other foreign languages or other translations into Polish.

Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland

Joanna Dybiec-Gajer

Prof. UP dr hab. Joanna Dybiec-Gajer jest profesorem w Instytucie Neofilologii na Wydziale Filologii Angielskiej Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego w Krakowie oraz tłumaczem przysięgłym języków angielskiego i niemieckiego. Wśród licznych zainteresowań badaczki można wyodrębnić dydaktykę i pragmatykę przekładu pisemnego, przekład uwierzytelniony, historię przekładów i przekładoznawstwa, twórczość Marka Twaina czy też literaturę dziecięcą w przekładzie. W 2013 roku ukazała się książka Zmierzyć przekład? Z metodologii oceniania w dydaktyce przekładu pisemnego. Inne publikacje obejmują książkę Verba Volant, Scripta Manent. How to write an M.A. thesis in Trans­lation Studies (wraz z Marią Piotrowską, 2012), a także artykuł z 2014 roku „Going Professional: Challenges and Opportunities for the Contemporary Translator Educators”.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Lokalizacja a przekład dla dzieci: Jak utwory strasznieją i mądrzeją w tłumaczeniu na przykładzie Stasia Straszydło i Mądrej Myszy” | “Localization and Translation for Children: On How Works Get Scarier and Smarter in the Translation of German Texts Lesemaus and Der Struwwelpeter.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 323–345.

Lokalizacja w przekładzie kojarzona jest przede wszystkim z obszarami nowych technologii i dotyczy głównie oprogramowania, stron internetowych, czy gier komputerowych. Jej początki w znanej obecnie formie przypadają na połowę lat 80. zeszłego wieku, kiedy nastąpił dynamiczny rozwój komputerów osobistych (Schäler 2010). Celem niniejszego artykułu jest refleksja, czy pojęcie lokalizacji można w sposób uzasadniony użyć w odniesieniu do innych obszarów przekładu, w tym także do tekstów powstałych znacznie wcześniej przed pojawieniem się nowoczesnej formy lokalizacji, oraz co może wnieść takie anachroniczne zastosowanie tego pojęcia. Refleksja zostanie zilustrowana dwoma studiami przypadków zaczerpniętymi z obszaru literatury dziecięcej. Pierwszy z nich to przekład na język polski klasyki gatunku, dziewiętnastowiecznego utworu znanego jako Der Struwwelpeter, w języku polskim funkcjonujący pod tytułem Staś Straszydło – Złota Różdżka. Wybór podyktowany jest nie tylko fascynującą wędrówką tego tekstu między kulturami, ale także przypadającą ostatnio 160. rocznicą wydania niemieckiego oryginału. Drugi przykład to książka współczesna z wysokonakładowej serii Mądra Mysz (oryg. Lesemaus). Oba utwory to przykłady tekstów multimodalnych – książki obrazkowej dla dzieci.

In translation studies, the term localization is mostly associated with areas connected to new technologies, such as software, websites or computer games. The origins of localization in the form known currently is dated to the mid-1980s, with the dynamic development of computers available to the masses (Schäler 2010). The main aim of this article is to explore whether the concept of localization can be used in a meaningful way to analyze other types of texts in interlingual and intercultural transfer, including texts written before the modern form of localization appeared. The analysis will be illustrated by two case studies taken from the field of children’s literature. The first concerns the Polish rendition of the 19th century classic Der Struwwelpeter while the second one a Polish translation of a contemporary book from the Lesemaus series. Both texts are examples of multimodal texts, that is, picture books for children.

Adam Mickiewicz Univ. in Poznań, Poland

Radoslaw Dylewski

Radosław Dylewski is a professor of linguistics at the Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. He specializes in the history of American English and its regional dialects (with the history of Southern Englishes in the 19th century in focus). His scholarly interests also encompass informal English, (African) American slang, lexical transfers, as well as the history of English taboo words and expressions.

Published with Æ Academic:

――, Magdalena Bator, Joanna Rabęda (2020) ““I remain(s)” and “but remain(s)”: Variation in the use of the 3rd person singular marker in American private letters from the mid-19th century.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 417‒444.

The present paper focuses on the analysis of the formulaic expressions with the verb remain, which were used as letter closing formulae in private correspondence during the American Civil War. Sequences comprising one of the phrases: I/we remain(s) and but/only/so/still/etc. remain(s) were scrutinized in order to verify whether Dylewski’s claim (2018) that the origin of the two types of formulae took different paths of development holds true as regards highly homogenous material produced by uneducated writers. The study was based on over four thousand letters written by soldiers and their relatives, compiled and digitized in Private Voices on-line repository.

Adam Mickiewicz Univ. in Poznań, Poland

Katarzyna Dziubalska

Katarzyna Dziubalska-­Kołaczyk is a full professor and Vice-­Rector of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, she was also Dean of the Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland. She has published extensively (ca. 160 publications) on phonology, phonetics, and language acquisition. Her books include A Theory of Second Language Acquisition within the Framework of Natural Phonology; Beats-and-Binding Phonology; and recent, co­authored, Phonotactics and Morphonotactics of Polish and English. She edits Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics and organizes Poznań Linguistic Meetings. In 2001–2002 she was a Senior Fulbright scholar. She is a member of Academia Europaea, Agder Academy, Linguistic Committee of PAN, a corresponding member abroad of Austrian Academy of Sciences. In 2013–2014, she was President of Societas Linguistica Europaea.

Published with Æ Academic:

――, Dawid Pietrala (2020) “The NAD Phonotactic Calculator – an online tool to calculate cluster preferability across languages.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 445‒458.

This paper presents the Net Auditory Distance (NAD) phonotactic calculator which can be used for calculating preferability of consonant clusters. The concept of measuring the preferability is grounded in the NAD model of phonotactics which derives from the theory of Beats-and-Binding Phonology (Dziubalska-Kołaczyk 2002): NAD calculation is based on the computation of relations between place of articulation (POA), manner of articulation (MOA) and sonorant-obstruent dichotomy of sounds which are part of the cluster. The values of the parameters are language-specific. So far, the values for the calculations in seven languages have been made available in the calculator: Polish, English, German, Russian, Ukrainian, Croatian and Georgian. The tool is accessible online at http://wa.amu.edu.pl/nadcalc/ and is regularly updated by the authors.

University of Zielona Góra, Poland

Iwona Filipczak

―― (2017) “Reclaiming the multicultural past in the global context in Bharati Mukherjee’s The Holder of the World and Toni Morrison’s A Mercy.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 2–22.

The article argues that contemporary American writing often shifts the interest from domestic affairs to placing America in the global context. This tendency is illustrated by the two novels chosen for the study, Bharati Mukherjee’s The Holder of the World and Toni Morrison’s A Mercy, both focusing on American colonial past. So far, they have been read as attempts to retell the origins of the United States in order to defy the myths of homogeneity and purity imposed by the dominant discourses of power. The present article elaborates on the question of multiculturalism in a broader context; it is claimed that the novels revive the multiculturalism of the pre-national American beginnings and place it against globalization processes – they highlight the 17th century interconnectedness of the world in order to make references to the contemporary reality, either overtly, as in The Holder of the World, or by analogy, A Mercy. Thus, the novels can be interpreted as attempts to dispel the fears of both the diversity of contemporary immigration and its disintegrative influence on the American society.

Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University, Ukraine

Anna Gaidash

―― (2017) “The years are coming up fast behind us: Representations of the elderly characters in three plays by Naomi Wallace.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 23–44.

The paper examines the portrayal of the elderly characters in the selected plays by Naomi Wallace. Content analysis of the play suggests that the elderly characters in Slaughter City, One Flea Spare, and The Inland Sea frequently address their pasts forming a network of life review narratives. The intergenerational relations establish the jumping-off base for the construction of late adulthood imagery in the analyzed plays. According to a Jungian psychoanalytic viewpoint, the ambivalent archetype of the senex is encoded in the characters of Sausage Man (Slaughter City) and Leafeater (The Inland Sea). The most prominent older adults in the discussed plays are female dramatis personae who subvert age segregation, i.e. Darcy (One Flea Spare) and Helen (The Inland Sea). Unlike women, elderly male characters evoke despair and anxiety. Once powerful William Snelgrave (One Flea Spare) and Leafeater (The Inland Sea) lose their authority in their old age and become unable to adapt to current changes. Old age in Naomi Wallace’s dramas is represented as “Other” and simultaneously inherent in the broader age continuum subverting ageist gerontophobia.

Adam Mickiewicz Univ. in Poznań, Poland

Piotr Gąsiorowski

Piotr Gąsiorowski is a University Professor in the Faculty of English at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. His research interests include historical and evolutionary linguistics, theories of language change, dialectology, phonetics and phonology. His current research work focuses on various aspects of Germanic and Indo-­European reconstruction as well as Modern English prosody.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Zounds! – Middle English voiced fricatives revisited.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 305‒314.

The phonemicization of the voiced allophones of the Old English anterior fricatives, /f, θ, s/, was a long and complicated process. The handbook description of the three phonemes as a natural class which underwent a round of duplication, giving rise to /v, ð, z/ at the same time for the same reasons, is incompatible with the Middle English evidence. A re­examination of the data and a critical analysis of the proposed scenarios of the emergence of the voiced fricative series leads to conclusions which endorse those of Minkova (2011): the phonemicization was gradual and proceeded in a non­parallel fashion. The influence of French, mediated by the massive importation of French loanwords into Middle English, played a greater role than any native systemic pressures.

Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland

Bożena Gierek

Bożena Gierek holds MA and PhD degrees in Religious Studies, habilitation degree (Dr. hab.) in Cultural Studies, MA degree in Economy (specialization: economics of tourism). She is an associate professor in the Centre for Comparative Studies of Civilizations at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland. Her field of research is: comparative cultures, with a  special interest in death, rituals, and Celtic culture; sociolinguistics; nonverbal communication. She is the author of numerous publications, including four books on Celtic culture, a co-author of lexica and encyclopaedia in the field of religion . Her recent book is Język irlandzki jako element tożsamości kulturowej Irlandczyków w Republice Irlandii w XX i XXI wieku [=The Irish Language as an Element of Cultural Identity of Irish People in the Republic of Ireland in the 20th and 21st Centuries], 2018.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Lajkonik (Hobby Horse) as Theatrum of the Period of Corpus Christi in Kraków (Poland).” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 116‒136.

Lajkonik (Hobby Horse), also called the Little Horse of Zwierzyniec (now one of the districts of Kraków), can be seen in Kraków every year in June, on
the eight day of the Corpus Christi celebrations. Lajkonik, a man dressed in a historical Tatar attire, on a beautifully adorned wooden horse, accompanied by his retinue, admired by crowds of people along his route, proceeds in a dancing manner from the Premonstratensian Convent in the district of Zwierzyniec to the Main Market Square. This tradition goes back at least to the 18th century. There are two main hypotheses concerning its origin: a pagan one, connected with spring magical rituals, which is forgotten today; and the other one, connected with the historical event—when in 1287 Tatars came to the gates of Kraków. The ritual of Lajkonik is perceived as a mythological theatrum, in which an event from the Polish national history is transferred into and displayed—as any myth—as a performance in which the audience participates. In this chapter the Author analyzes all elements of the performance such as: the plot, its meaning, the structure, the rhythm, the actors, their costumes and acting, the atmosphere, the space—the route of the procession. The comparison of the performance in the past and at present gives an insight into changes in the ritual in the course of time. The Author drew from the written sources which comprise the oldest and recent descriptions of the Lajkonik celebration, as well as from her observations made while
participating in this event partly (at the Main Market Square) several times since the 1980s, and in 2017 following the whole route of Lajkonik.

affiliation site:https://psc.uj.edu.pl/en_US/o-nas/pracownicy/bozena-gierek

researchgate:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bozena-Gierek

WSB University in Wrocław, Poland

Tomasz P. Górski

Dr Tomasz P. Górski ukończył w 2001 roku studia anglistyczne na Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim. Tam również doktoryzował się w roku 2005. Od wielu lat zajmuje się pracą naukową i dydaktyczną w zakresie językoznawstwa i translatoryki. Współpracuje jako tłumacz i konsultant językowy z Instytutem Badań
Literackich Polskiej Akademii Nauk w Warszawie, jest członkiem wielu polskich i zagranicznych towarzystw naukowych. Interesuje się teorią oraz praktyką przekładu, problemami języka i kultury, prowadzi badania na pograniczu językoznawstwa i literaturoznawstwa. Współredagował tom At the Crossroads
of Linguistic Sciences (2006); jest autorem licznych artykułów z zakresu nauki o przekładzie, publikowanych w Polsce i za granicą. Pracuje w Wyższej Szkole Bankowej we Wrocławiu. Jego najnowsza monografia to Polskie przekłady Hamleta Williama Shakespeare’a: Analiza intertekstualna (2013).

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “‘Konotacja obcości’ w przekładzie” | “‘Connotation of Strangeness’ in Translation.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 356–382.

Tekst stanowi próbę analizy szeroko pojętej obcości w przekładzie. Autor artykułu szczegółowo omawia pojęcie kulturemów oraz opisuje strategie tłumaczeniowe pomocne w procesie ich przekładu, opierając się na pracy Romana Lewickiego (2000) pt. Obcość w odbio­rze przekładu i analizuje z tej perspektywy nie tylko nazwy realiów, ale również m.in. formy adresatywne, jednostki leksykalne czy cechy gramatyczne. Głównym trzonem pracy jest skrupulatna analiza polskich przekładów Hamleta Williama Shakespeare’a. Autor omawia przykłady tytułowego zjawiska zaczerpnięte z licznych polskich tłumaczeń tego dramatu.

The present text is an attempt at analysis of the notion of strangeness in translation. The author elaborates on the concept of culturemes and describes the translation strategies that are helpful in their translation. Based on Lewicki’s (2000) study Obcość w odbiorze przekładu [= strangeness in the translation reception], the author discusses not only names of realities but also, among others, addressative forms, lexical units, or grammatical features. The core element of the discussion is a detailed analysis of existing Polish translations of William Shakespeare’s tragedy Hamlet. The author discusses the problem in question using the examples collected from numerous Polish translations of this Shakespearean tragedy.

―― (2018) “William Szekspir, Dwóch szlachetnych krewnych, przekład Anna Wojtyś | William Shakespeare, The Two Noble Kinsmen, trans. by Anna Wojtyś.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 383–388.

Polish Academy of Sciences

Franciszek Grucza

[Polish Academy of Sciences, University of Warsaw, University of Social Sciences (SAN) in Warsaw, Poland]

Prof. dr hab. Franciszek Grucza – wybitny polski językoznawca, germanista, twórca polskiej szkoły lingwistyki stosowanej, autor antropocentrycznej teorii języków ludzkich, powiązanej z nią koncepcji epistemologii antropocentrycznej oraz licznych studiów z zakresu metalingwistyki. Twórca i wieloletni
dyrektor Instytutu Lingwistyki Stosowanej Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego – pierwszej polskiej akademickiej placówki dydaktycznej i badawczej powołanej w celu podjęcia studiów nad lingwistyką, glottodydaktyką, translatoryką oraz zagadnieniami pokrewnymi. W latach 1982–1985 piastował stanowisko prorektora Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Jest członkiem rzeczywistym Polskiej Akademii Nauk, prezesem Stowarzyszenia Germanistów Polskich i prezydentem Międzynarodowego Stowarzyszenia Germanistów (IVG). Wykładał na uniwersytetach w Konstancji, Essen, Hamburgu, Saarbrücken (Niemcy) oraz w Zurychu (Szwajcaria). Jest doktorem honoris causa uniwersytetów w Essen i Opolu.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Translatoryka: początki konstytuowania jej rozumień, zadań i akademickiego statusu oraz jej relacje do lingwistyki i glottodydaktyki” | “Research in Translation: The Evolution of Major Definitions, Objectives and Academic Status as well as its Relationship to Language Research and Foreign Language Learning/Teaching.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 2–57.

Niniejszy artykuł stanowi syntezę trzech tekstów eksplikujących poglądy ich autora w zakresie translatoryki w jej odniesieniu do lingwistyki, metalingwistyki, lingwistyki stosowanej, glottodydaktyki a także wielu zagadnień pokrewnych. Pierwsza część artykułu pełni rolę wprowadzenia do dwóch tekstów pochodzących z początku lat 80. XX w., które ilustrują główne założenia refleksji badawczej autora w powyższych zakresach tematycznych. Wprowadzenie autora kontekstualizuje lekturę współczesnego czytelnika zsyntetyzowanych tekstów, ukazując innowacyjność zawartych w nich analiz w kontekście historyczno-rozwojowym. Jeszcze bardziej intrygujące są uwagi autora na temat kolejnych etapów ewolucji jego poglądów w zakresie omawianych zagadnień. Czytelnik odnajdzie także wskazania dotyczące potencjalnych, rozwojowych obszarów badawczych wartych zainteresowania ze strony młodych pokoleń badaczy-lingwistów jak i praktyków–lingwistów: nauczycieli języka, tłumaczy oraz innych specjalistów w zakresie komunikacji specjalistycznej. Bez wątpienia dla tych czytelników niniejszy artykuł winien stanowić swoistą „lekturę obowiązkową”.

This article is a synthesis of three texts that explicate their author’s views on the topic of translatology in its reference to linguistics (language studies), metalinguistics, applied linguistics, glottodidactics (foreign language learning and teaching), as well as many related issues. The first part of the article forms an introduction to the two other texts dating back to the early 1980s; the latter two illustrate the outline of the author’s thought on the research problems mentioned above. This introduction is necessary to situate the contemporary readers’ reception of the latter two texts and to unveil the innovative nature of the analyses they contain when seen from the developmental angle. Even more intriguing are those remarks that disclose the gradual evolution of the author’s views on the topics under analysis. The reader will also find the author’s detailed recommendations on the potential fields of further research worthy of interest to young generations of language researchers and practitioners in the domains of language teaching and translation/interpreting, as well as other experts in professional communication. Undeniably, it would behoove that wide group of readers needs to add this text to their short list of reads.

Daugavpils University, Latvia

Ilze Kačāne

Ilze Kačāne PhD, is a senior researcher at the Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences at Daugavpils University (Latvia) and Head of the Centre of Cultural Research within the Institute. She is an expert at the Latvian Council of Science in the commission “Humanities and Social Sciences” in the research area “Literary studies,” and in the commission “Social Sciences” in the research area “Sociology and social work.” She is a member of the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies. Her methodological expertise lies in comparative cultural studies; she is the editor of Journal of Comparative Studies. She has broad experience in the implementation
of international research projects, including the Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development (FP7, Horizon 2020). Currently she is involved in the Horizon 2020 project “Cultural Heritage and Identities of Europe’s Future” (CHIEF; 2018–2021) funded by the European Commission.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Transformations of New Year Celebration in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Era: the Cases of Armenia and Latvia.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 163‒177.

The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the most remarkable transformations of New Year celebrations in Armenia and Latvia—countries with a shared collective memory and inherited Soviet identity. The research focuses on two culture-historical periods: (1) the Soviet period when the countries were seen as peripheries opposed to the center (Moscow), and (2) the post-Soviet period when after the collapse of authoritarianism and restoration of independence in the 1990s, the re-established national cultural values emerged to co-exist with effectively ingrained former Soviet celebration traditions. The results obtained in the research confirm that New Year celebration traditions in the Soviet and post-Soviet eras were crucially influenced by the political change promoting transformations in the nations’ festive traditions and in provoking the emergence of a hybrid national identity. The research
was carried out by applying the cultural-historical approach, frame analysis, content analysis, and comparative analysis.

LinkedIn:https://lv.linkedin.com › ilze-kačāne-b9a45a73

ORCID iD:https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2754-158X

ResearcherID:http://www.researcherid.com/rid/C-9525-2014

Scopus Author ID:http://www.scopus.com/inward/authorDetails.url?authorID=57195283933&partnerID=MN8TOARS

affiliation site:https://du.lv/en/research/institutes-and-centres/institute-of-comparative-studies/

Google Scholar:https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=4WFPBT8AAAAJ&hl=en

University of Bergen, Norway

Oleksandr Kapranov

―― (2017) “Bicultural and language-related narratives of USA-born female future teachers permanently residing in Sweden.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 137–156.

This article involves a psycholinguistic study which seeks to elucidate bicultural and language-related aspects of USA immigrants residing permanently in Sweden. The case study further presented in this article involves discourse narratives and semi-structured interviews with six participants who immigrated to Sweden from the USA after the age of 21. The participants’ inclusion criteria involved the following considerations: female, tertiary educated, current enrollment in the teaching education program at a Swedish university, USA-born, English as the first language, no early balanced bilingual background, permanent residents in Sweden, and the minimal age of immigration to Sweden at 21 years old. This case study involves two written tasks and a structured questionnaire filled out by the participants individually. Both the structured questionnaire and the written tasks have been executed in the English language. The participants have been asked to write a one paragraph narrative titled “My Happiest Day in Sweden” and one paragraph narrative “My Unhappiest Day in Sweden.” The structured questionnaires have been analyzed in the computer program SPSS, while the narrative tasks have been analyzed in the WordSmith software program. Based upon the statistics yielded by WordSmith, the data have been further examined qualitatively for the presence of conceptual construals associated with bicultural and language-related aspects of the participants’ life in Sweden. These findings are further presented and discussed in the paper.

University of Warsaw, Poland

Magdalena Kizeweter

Magdalena Kizeweter (PhD in translation studies) is a lecturer in the Institute of English Studies, University of Warsaw, Poland, where she teaches practical translation classes and theoretical translation courses as well as supervises MA theses in the field of Translation Studies. Interested in literary and audiovisual translation, mostly from the point of view of the functioning and reception of target texts in the target context, manipulation, and strategies and techniques used by translators. Her additional interests include the theory and practice of translator training.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Adapting Shakespeare and Fletcher’s Drama for Theatre: A Selection of Problems on the Way of Rendering the Tragicomedy The Two Noble Kinsmen into Polish.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 371‒394.

The text of drama may be changed considerably in the process of its adaptation for theatre. Factors such as the age of the target audience, the size of the theater or the available equipment often result in the need for the alteration of the text which typically involves its abridgement. Other solutions include the rephrasing of the original passages and replacing portions of text with more familiar expressions. The article discusses the adaptation of The Two Noble Kinsmen, a less-known Shakespeare’s drama composed in the collaboration with Fletcher. The play had its Polish premiere in 2016 in Jan Dorman Theatre in Będzin. Due to the nature of the house, which is predominantly a theatre for children, the literal Polish translation underwent considerable changes.

John Paul II Catholic U. of Lublin, Poland

Konrad Klimkowski

Dr hab. Konrad Klimkowski jest tłumaczem ustnym i pisemnym, dydaktykiem i badaczem dydaktyki przekładu, adiunktem w Instytucie Filologii Angielskiej KUL. Jego główne zainteresowania badawcze oscylują wokół socjokonstruktywistycznych podstaw edukacji translatorskiej, komunikacyjnych aspektów działań dydaktycznych, uczenia się rozumianego jako proces wspólnej emergencji wiedzy uczących i uczących się oraz kształtowania postaw przedsiębiorczych w ramach dydaktyki translacji.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Glottodydaktyka a przekład i dydaktyka przekładu: konkurencja czy synergia” | “Foreign Language Learning and Teaching, Translation, and  Translator Education: Competition or Synergy.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 84–202.

Nawet najodleglejsza w czasie refleksja nad nauką języka obcego czyni odwołania do praktyk tłumaczeniowych; translacja bywała postrzegana jako wsparcie dla glottodydaktyki. Wydaje się, że pierwsze próby wyeliminowania przekładu z pola widzenia glottodydaktyki pojawiają się dopiero w wieku XX. Metoda bezpośrednia (Direct Method) zupełnie eliminowała przekład jako możliwe narzędzie dydaktyczne, zaś podejście komunikacyjne (CLT) było i pozostaje najczęściej niechętne odwołaniom dydaktycznym zarówno do języka L1, jak i do wykorzystywania przekładu do rozwijania sprawności językowych L1 i L2. Historyczna synteza relacji glottodydaktyka–przekład stanowi jednak wyłącznie tło dla głównego pytania stawianego w niniejszym opracowaniu, czyli jak powyższa relacja może wyglądać w przyszłości. Autor poszukuje zakresów synergii, w których przekład oraz pewne rozwiązania z zakresu dydaktyki przekładu mogą wspierać procesy uczenia się języka w warunkach globalizacji komunikacji międzyludzkiej.

From time immemorial, reflection upon foreign language learning has made regular reference to translation practice; translation would be regarded at times as supportive of language learning. A radical attempt to eradicate translation from the foreign language classroom comes no sooner than the 20th century. The Direct Method eliminates translation completely from its language pedagogic application, while the CLT seems to have always been rather hesitant to make reference to L1, and hence to utilize translation in developing language skills in L1 and L2. The historical outline of the relationship between language learning and translation serves only as a background for the main topic of the article, i.e. an elaboration on what this relation can look like in the future. The idea is to show areas of synergy between the two, areas in which translation activities can help language learners grow and function in globalized human communication..

―― (2018) “Specialista językowy  jako przedsiębiorca. Propozycje do zajęć warsztatowych” | “A Language Specialist as an Entrepreneur: Suggestions for an Academic Workshop.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1).  San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 226–251.

Niniejszy artykuł stanowi próbę uzasadnienia tezy o potrzebie kształcenia w zakresie sprawności przedsiębiorczych przyszłych specjalistów językowych. Autor stara się wyjaśnić rolę poszczególnych sprawności w ramach tzw. kompetencji świadczenia usług tłumaczeniowych, jaką przedstawia dokument EMT (2009). W ostatniej części artykułu, autor stara się zachęcić studentów i nauczycieli do podjęcia tematyki przedsiębiorczości jako przedmiotu edukacji i autoedukacji. W tym celu autor dołącza przykładowe ćwiczenia, jakie można wykorzystać w działaniach edukacyjnych  i autoedukacyjnych..

This article is an attempt to prove the claim that future language and communication specialists need to be trained in entrepreneurial skills. The author endeavors to explain the role of particular skills within the so-called translation service provision competence as defined in EMT (2009). The latter part of the article encourages students and teachers to take up entrepreneurship as a vital theme in contemporary education and self-education. To that end, the author provides a selection of activities for training a variety of entrepreneurial skills.

Széchenyi István University, Hungary

Judit Baranyiné Kóczy

―― (2017) “Cross-cultural variation of metaphors in folksongs.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 106–136.

In the past years, considerable attention has been paid to the multitude of contexts which influence metaphorical language. This paper aims at exploring and comparing the cultural metaphors and metonymies of Hungarian and Slovak folksongs, in order to uncover where the conceptualization differences reside. The main focus of the present analysis is on the mapping system of metaphors, taking into account some similarities and differences in source and target domain pairings. The empirical research reveals a number of factors that should be discussed in the comparison of cross-cultural metaphor variation, including universality, specification, conventionality, schematicity, and elaboration.

University of Warsaw, Poland

Barbara Kowalik

Barbara Janina Kowalik is a professor of English literature in the Institute of English Studies, University of Warsaw, Poland. Her main fields of research are: Middle English literature, medievalism, women writers, and English­‒Polish comparative studies. Her publications include articles on Geoffrey Chaucer, the Gawain ­poet, Thomas Malory, Robert Henryson, and J.R.R. Tolkien; a monograph Betwixt engelaunde and englene londe: A Dialogic Poetics in Medieval English Religious Lyric (Peter Lang, 2010); a monograph A Woman’s Pastoral: Dialogue with Literary Tradition in Barbara Pym’s Fiction (Lublin: U. of M. Curie Press, 2002); and a monograph From Circle to Tangle: Space in the Poems of the Pearl Manuscript (Lublin: U. of M. Curie Press, 1997). She has edited a monograph, ‘O What a Tangled Web’: Tolkien and Medieval Literature, a View from Poland (Walking Tree Publishers, 2013). Her article, “Was she a boy: The queer maiden of the Middle English Pearl,” has recently been published in English Studies (2020).

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Mimetic Desires in Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 203‒225.

This article draws upon René Girard’s concept of desire to elucidate the nature of personal relationships in Thomas Malory’s Arthuriad. Girard observes that all human desire beyond biologically grounded appetites is imitative rather than unique. In particular, he demystifies romantic love, arguing that it originates in the imitation of another’s desire, longing for what another is and has. Girard believes that “literary criticism should help to uncover the mimetic nature of desire” in its innumerable combinations and that “each writer demands an entirely different demonstration” (2008: 77, 174). This article traces Malory’s configurations of love and friendship via Girard’s mimetic model.

 

University of Warsaw, Poland

Tomasz P. Krzeszowski

Even though Professor Tomasz Krzeszowski, Dr. habil., specializes in cognitive linguistics, his research interests encapsulate a whole variety of issues, from studies on the theory of language to aspects of applied linguistics; from contractive cognitive studies to translation theory as well as foreign language
acquisition and teaching methodology. His achievements in cognitive linguistics were appreciated by his appointment to the Editorial Board for the international periodical Cognitive Linguistics, next to Ronald Langacker, George Lakoff, Dirk Geeraerts, Pieter Seuren, and Leonard Talmy. The wealth of his
scholarly interests amazes and so does diversity of subjects he has lectured on, including English phonetics and phonology, syntax and semantics, or contrastive grammar; not to mention specialized monograph lectures usu. from the cognitive perspective, such as “Roots and Moots of Cognitive Linguistics,” “All Roads Lead to the Brain (Introduction to Neurolinguistics),” “Meaning and Translation, Metaphor and Metalanguage.”

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Ekwiwalencja tłumaczeniowa jako urojenie” | “Equivalence in Translation as Fiction.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 58–76.

Artykuł dotyczy rozważań na temat ekwiwalencji tłumaczeniowej i rozwoju tego pojęcia, które z czasem stało się iluzoryczne. Omawiane rodzaje ekwiwalencji miały zagwarantować naukowe podejście do tłumaczenia a tym czasem spowodowały chaos. Propozycja przedstawiona w poniższym artykule opiera się na kognitywnym podejściu do rozumienia pewnych konceptów. Proponowana zmiana w rozumieniu ekwiwalencji polega na rozróżnieniu jej znaczeń na denotacyjne i referencyjne. W artykule zegzemplifikowane zostały przykłady figur geometrycznych jako przykłady tłumaczenia intersemiotycznego, a zaimplikowały one zmianę myślenia kierunku o koncepcie ekwiwalencji.

The article concerns the notion of equivalence not only in translation but also in mathematics. The phenomenon of equivalence has been reconstructed so many times that according to the text it became illusory. Equivalence types were supposed to guarantee an in-depth knowledge in the topic of translation, however, it worked other way round – the notion of equivalence became chaotic. The theoretical background is focus on cognitive linguistics and the article suggests that the differences in the equivalence should be considered on a different level than before. Geometrical figures were used in this article to become examples of intersemiotic translation and proved that the way of thinking about equivalence may change.

―― (2020) “Jacek Fisiak to Poznań | Jacek Fisiak is Poznań” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. (Beyond Language 5). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 25–37.

―― (2020) “The FISIAK (A Travesty from William Blake)” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. (Beyond Language 5). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 537.

State U. of Applied Sciences in Konin, Poland

Barbara Lewandowska

Barbara Lewandowska­-Tomaszczyk, Dr. habil., is a full professor of English and Applied Linguistics at the State University of Applied Sciences in Konin, Head of the Department of Research in Language and Communication, for many years she served as Head of the Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics at the University of Łódź. Author and editor of numerous books and papers in cognitive and corpus linguistics, translation and media studies, she has been invited to read papers at conferences and give workshops at European, American and Asian universities.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Event construal in some English middle and reflexive constructions and their Polish counterparts.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 459‒475.

The paper focuses on some medio-passive and reflexive constructions in English and their Polish counterparts. It also discusses a syntactic-semantic extension of canonical verb scenarios into explicit reflexive constructions marked with reflexive-emphatic pronouns. The study elaborates on a discussion presented in Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (2000), published in the volume to mark Professor Jacek Fisiak’s fortieth anniversary as an academic.

John Paul II Papal U. in Kraków, Poland

Marcin Majewski

Dr hab. Marcin Majewski jest wykładowcą przedmiotów biblijnych i języka hebrajskiego na UPJP2 w Krakowie i członkiem Stowarzyszenia Biblistów Polskich. Jest autorem kilku monografii, w tym Jak przekłady zmieniają Biblię: O teorii i praktyce tłumaczenia Pisma Świętego, a także współredaktorem portalu
biblijnego Orygenes.pl.

Published with Æ Academic:

――, Artur Sporniak, Teresa Szostek, Michał Czajkowski (2018) “Cenzura w Biblii” | “Censorship in the Bible.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 166–183.

Artykuł skupia się na analizie wywiadu dotyczącego przekładu Biblii oraz związanej z nim cenzury. Autorka komentuje wypowiedzi jednego z rozmówców wzbogacając je o własne przemyślenia i analizy. Tłumacze Pisma Świętego łagodzą niektóre fragmenty, jak chociażby refren w Pieśni nad Pieśniami, który w większości przekładów wspomina „obejmowanie”, podczas gdy Biblia protestancka zawiera właściwy przekład, mówiąc o pieszczeniu. Podobnie tłumacze poprawiają Biblię, mając inne wyobrażenie o tym jak powinien wyglądać tekst sakralny, wprowadzają na przykład wyrażenia neutralne zamiast wulgaryzmów. Według Czajkowskiego tłumacze często cenzurują Biblię, próbując złagodzić tekst. Czasami rozbieżności wynikają jednak z niezrozumienia tekstu biblijnego. Nie zawsze jednak różnice w tłumaczeniach wynikają z pracy tłumacza. Jest tak na przykład w przypadku słowa „pneuma”, które może oznaczać ducha, słowo pisane małą literą, lub Ducha Świętego. Autor nie popiera jednak tłumaczenia „inkluzywnego”. Tekstu natchnionego nie powinno się zmieniać. Zmiany tego typu można zastąpić wyjaśnieniami czy komentarzami. Aby odkryć pierwotne znaczenie Pisma Świętego najlepiej jest porównać jeden z przekładów polskich z przekładami obcojęzycznymi lub innymi przekładami polskimi.

The article focuses on the analysis of an interview regarding Bible translation and related censorship. The author comments on the statements of one of the interlocutors, adding her own insights and analyses. Bible translators make certain parts of the text more approachable, as was the case with the refrain to Song of Songs, which, in most translations, mentions “embracing” while the protestant Bible contains the correct translation, i.e. “caressing.” Similarly, translators correct the Bible, as they have a different notion of what a sacral text should look like. For example, they introduce neutral phrases instead of offensive words. In Czajkowski’s opinion, translators often censor the Bible, trying to make the text less blunt. However, sometimes discrepancies are a result of not understanding the original text. Not always are these differences a consequence of the translator’s work, though. It is clearly visible e.g. in the case of “pneuma,” a word which can be translated into ghost or soul, spelled with a small letter, or the Holy Ghost. The author does not support the so-called “inclusive” translation. The inspired text should not be changed. Such changes can be replaced with explanations or comments. In order to discover the original meaning of the Holy Scripture, one can compare one of the Polish translations with translations into other foreign languages or other translations into Polish.

University of Opole, Poland

Janusz Malak

Janusz Malak is a senior lecturer at the University of Opole. The main interests: the history of the English language, diachronic linguistics, generative grammar (syntax and its relation to LF and PF), and the philosophy of language.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “From where did the death of the English inflection come?” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 315‒334.

Modern English is a deflectional language, i.e. the one in which inflections plays a marginal role in the production and interpretation of linguistic products. This fact appears to be surprising if one take into account the fact that the initial stages of the language spoken on the British Isles between the 5th and 11th century, i.e. Old English, was an inflectional language and there has never been any communicational breach between successive generations of English speakers down to the present time. The Middle English period between 1150 and 1450 is the stage in the history of the English language during which the inflection almost disappeared. Generally it is phonological phenomena which are held responsible for the disappearance of inflection in Middle English. Here this approach is termed ‘intrasystemic scenario’. Taking into account the linguistic facts coming from different Middle English dialectal areas an approach is proposed which is based on conditions which are extraneous to the system. This approach is termed ‘extrasystemic scenario’. The two scenarios are compared and evaluated.

University of Leeds, UK

Rory McTurk

Rory McTurk is professor emeritus of Icelandic Studies at the University of Leeds. He is the author of Studies in Ragnars saga loðbrókar and its Major Scandinavian Analogues (1985) and Chaucer and the Norse and Celtic Worlds (2005), the editor of the Blackwell Companion to Old Norse–Icelandic Literature and Culture (2005), and a contributor to the nine-­volume edition of Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages (2007–). He has published translations of Old and Modern Icelandic poetry and prose, and numerous articles on these and related subjects, including Old and Middle English literature.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Campbell’s ‘art of parallelism’ in Old English poetry: A reappraisal.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 97‒113.

The paper illustrates with examples the ten types of parallel expression identified by A. Campbell as characteristic of “the art of parallelism” in Old English poetry. It is found that, while the types are for the most part easily distinguishable, type 2, the partial parallel, the function of which, in Campbell’s terms, is “to parallel only part of an expression, and to add something new to replace what is omitted”, runs the risk of confusion with type 6, the expansion of a preceding word or phrase, since the adding of “something new” is itself an expansion. Given that Campbell describes the partial parallel as the “simplest variation upon” type 1, the balanced parallel, “where an element generally double is repeated by one syntactically equivalent and of approximately equal bulk”, it is suggested that a partial parallel may be identified as such if its first element corresponds syntactically to one or other of the elements in a balanced parallel. It is thus necessary to identify all instances of the balanced parallel in the Old English poetic corpus before instances of the partial parallel can be safely identified.

University of Tartu, Estonia

Tatiana Minniyakhmetova

Tatiana Minniyakhmetova, PhD in Ethnology (1996, Russian Academy of Sciences) and PhD in Folklore (2003, University of Tartu, Estonia). Independent researcher based in Innsbruck, Austria. Academic interests and field of research: traditional beliefs of the Udmurts and Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Russian ethnic groups of the Volga-Ural region (Russia), folk calendar, ritual, ritual practice, ritual folklore, field-work methodology, diaspora groups. She had conducted 73 field expeditions and is an author and a co-author of eight books, and more than 200 articles.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Manifestation of Various Values in Traditional Udmurt Feasts.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 79‒98.

A traditional feast is the basis for keeping together a family, a kinship group, and a community. There are many important values and symbols mani fested in the feast. This applies to Udmurt communities. Traditionally, the Udmurt economy was mostly based on agriculture and cattle breeding, and therefore the significant rituals and feasts were, and still are, devoted to activities connected with them. There are feasts directly aimed at honoring domestic animals. One of them is called “eating beestings” (eating the first milk from a cow) and takes place after a cow gives birth to a calf. Another feast, called “treats with soup-porridge-meat,” is organized after domestic animals are slaughtered for meat. The main feast food consists of dishes made from the first milk and meat, with porridge, respectively. Numerous guests are invited to the feasts. These feasts have not received enough scholarly attention. I intend to present them highlighting various values that are manifested in them, as well as the changes they have undergone. The study is based on my field research carried out in 1980–2017, and published materials on the subject using the method of component analysis.

affiliation site:https://uibk.academia.edu/TatianaMinniyakhmetova

LinkedIn:https://at.linkedin.com/in/tatiana-tatiana-minniyakhmetova-61b65557

University of Wrocław, Poland

Aleksandra Misior-Mroczkowska

Aleksandra Misior-Mroczkowska w 2016 roku uzyskała tytuł magistra filologii angielskiej w Wyższej Szkole Filologicznej we Wrocławiu (jej praca magisterska dotyczyła dwóch polskich przekładów książki Alana Alexandra Milne’a, Winnie ­the ­Pooh). W tym samym roku rozpoczęła studia III stopnia na Wydziale Filologicznym Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Pracę doktorską planuje poświęcić propagandzie z okresu II wojny światowej, a dokładniej trzem mechanizmom: nazistowskiemu, brytyjskiemu oraz amerykańskiemu. Jej zainteresowania naukowe to przekładoznawstwo oraz socjolingwistyka.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Rzecz o Kubusiu i Fredzi, czyli o nazwach własnych w dwóch polskich przekładach tekstów Alana Alexandra Milne’a” | “The Thing about Kubuś and Fredzia, so a Few Words on Proper Names in Two Polish Translations of Alan Alexandre Milne’s texts.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 346–355.

Winnie-­the-­Pooh, opowieść autorstwa Alana Alexandra Milne’a, pierwszy raz opublikowana w 1926 roku, od prawie już wieku cieszy się uznaniem czytelników na całym świecie. Historia o małym misiu oraz jego przyjaciołach, początkowo istniejąca tylko na  kartach książki, stała się jedną z  najbardziej rozpoznawalnych adaptacji Disneya. Sam tekst tej opowieści jest trudnym wyzwaniem dla tłumaczy, ponieważ jej autor popisał się zaskakującą kreatywnością, m.in. przy tworzeniu imion dla swoich bohaterów. Tekst zawiera wiele dwuznacznych elementów, neologizmów, onomatopei czy intencjonalnych błędów językowych. Samo imię głównego bohatera opowieści, tytułowego misia, może posłużyć za znakomity przykład elementu, który spędza sen z  powiek wielu tłumaczom z całego świata. Winnie to imię żeńskie, natomiast w tekście autor zawsze używa męskiego zaimka osobowego he. Druga część imienia, czyli Pooh, to, ku zaskoczeniu wielu czytelników, onomatopeja – element równie skomplikowany z perspektywy przekładu. Poniższy artykuł to próbka analizy polskich tłumaczeń nazw własnych dokonanych przez dwie tłumaczki: Irenę Tuwim oraz Monikę Adamczyk-Garbowską.

Winnie-the­-Pooh, a literary work published by Alan Alexander Milne in 1926, has been appreciated by readers worldwide for nearly a century. The story about a little bear and his companions was first bellowed in book version, then became one of Disney’s best and unforgettable adaptations. The text proves rather difficult to translate, for Milne demonstrated great creativity, particularly in naming his characters and various places. It is rife with many ambiguous expressions, neologisms, onomatopoeias, and intentional language errors. The name of the eponymous bear, for instance, Winnie-the-Pooh, well illustrates the difficulty in translation, for Winnie, a reportedly diminutive form of Winifred, is allegedly a female name, whereas the bear is referred to as male. The Pooh part has also proven problematic in translation. The following article is an attempt at analyzing selected proper names in two Polish translations of the story. In 1938, Irena Tuwim published a translation entitled Kubuś Puchatek, which Polish readers immediately fell in love with. In 1986, Monika Adamczyk-Garbowska published her translation, Fredzia Phi-­Phi. It attracted a deluge of negative comments and contemptuous reactions with many readers expressing dislike for Fredzia Phi-­Phi, viewing it as a crime against the lauded first translation – which, as it happens, contains many mistakes and strays far from the original text.

University of Szeged, Hungary

László Mód

László Mód, PhD, assistant professor at the Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology (University of Szeged, Hungary), secretary of the SIEF Space-lore and Place-lore Working Group, member of the editorial board of Acta Ethnographica Hungarica, main field of interest: cultural heritage, museology.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Grape Harvest Feast as an Attempt to Develop Local Identity and Cultural Heritage. The Hungarian Case.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 35‒50.

The author makes an attempt to analyze a special type of a local feast which is connected to the grape harvest. By the end of the 19th century a distinctive form of grape harvest feast arose in Hungary and spread even to regions where the climatic conditions did not allow the cultivation of vines and wine-making. The research was based on ethnographic fieldwork, namely participant observation, interviews, and archival sources. The example the author would like to analyze in this study is taken from the outlying area (Bokros) of the town of Csongrád in the south of Hungary. The paper has attempted to trace the process of how an invented tradition popular in the first half of the 20 th century has been rediscovered by members of a community in a peripheral situation. The grape harvest feast can be used by the community as a means to construct and express its own local identity.

ResearchGate:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Laszlo-Mod

Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland

Marek Moroń

Marek Moroń, PhD, is a lecturer at the Center of Comparative Studies of Civilizations at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland. His primary academic interests are nation-building and nationalism in South Asia. Dr. Moroń is a former diplomat. He served as a consul general of Poland in Mumbai (2001–2007) and, before that, he worked in Kolkata and Tehran. He is actively involved in interfaith dialogue and promotion of knowledge about European Islam and Muslim communities in Central and Southern Europe. He has written a number of academic works, published in Poland and India.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “The Use of Sacrifice Feast of Eid ul-Adha in Bengal as an Instrument of Promoting Communal Violence for Political Purposes: The Situation in the 1920s, 1930s, and 2017.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 163‒177.

The author presents how the religious celebration of Eid ul-Adha, which involves animal sacrifice , was used as an instrument of promoting a particular
political agenda, related to developing communal hate and violence between Hindus and Muslims in Bengal of the 1920s and 1930s. The description and short analysis of the meaning of this celebration is followed by the review of the political background in the 19th and 20th centuries India. Particular emphasis is put on the issue of cow slaughtering—used for political purposes, related to creating the communal enemy and political violence. In the last paragraph, the author concludes on whether the research purpose of the paper was achieved. He also gives a brief note on how the subject of the chapter is an actual and valid issue in Indian politics in 2017. The research methods employed by the author include literature studies and references, as well as interviews with author’s friends from Bengal. The author participated as a guest in the Eid ul-Adha sacrifices at the end of the 1960s in Dhaka and at the end of the 1980s in Kolkata. In all those cases the feast of sacrifice took place in the households of upper middle class families and was always a private , “at home” event.

affiliation site:https://www.usosweb.uj.edu.pl/kontroler.php?_action=katalog2/osoby/pokazOsobe&os_id=85431

University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland

Rafał Molencki

Rafał Molencki is a professor of English and linguistics at the University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. His major research interests are historical linguistics, Indo-­European and Germanic studies, medieval English, paleography, varieties of English, prescriptivism, contrastive studies and theory and practice of translation. He is the author of three books: Complementation in Old English (1991), A History of English Counterfactuals (1999), and Causal Conjunctions in Mediaeval English: A Corpus-Based Study of Grammaticalization(2012), and over 60 articles. He is the Editor-­in-­Chief of Linguistica Silesiana and the head of the regional Linguistics Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “PerHAPs HAPpiness HAPpens: On the expansion of the Old Norse root hap– in Middle English.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 335‒353.

The Old Norse root hap– was the source of several new Middle English words, most of which did not have corresponding cognates in the donor language. First the noun hap was borrowed in the 13th century, which in the next two centuries was followed by coining the adjective happy, the verb happen, the modal adverb perhaps and their derivatives, all of them joined semantically by the common sense of ‘chance, fate, luck.’ After the words became rooted in English, each of them followed their own semantic paths. They all became high frequency words, often replacing their older synonyms of Old English origin.

University of Warsaw, Poland

Ewa Nowicka

Ewa Nowicka, Prof. Dr. habil., social anthropologist and sociologist, founder of the Department Section of Social Anthropology at the Institute of Sociology in the University of Warsaw, a member of the Committee of Migration and Polonia Studies (Polish Academy of Sciences, PAoS), member of the Committee of Ethnological Sciences (PAoS) and the Balkan Studies Commission (PAoS), member of the European Association of Social Anthropologists. She is the author of the handbook of social anthropology Świat Człowieka – Świat Kultury [The World of Man – The World of Culture] and numerous books and articles on issues of familiarity and strangeness, culture contact, the emergence of modern nations in Siberia (e.g. Buryats), and the situation of the Polish minority in the areas of the former Soviet Union and minority groups in Poland and Central and Eastern Europe (particularly Roma and Vlach).

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Performing Ethnicity: Buryat Ethnofestivals and a Rediscovered Tradition.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 19‒34.

This chapter focuses on cultural processes ongoing in contemporary Buryat society and is based upon material collected during long-term anthropological research conducted on the whole of ethnic Buryatia, i.e., the original territory which the Buryats inhabited. The initial phase ran from 1993 to 1994; subsequent research was done in 2000, 2010, and in the years 2012–2014. At the core of the analysis are three ethnofestivals (the Geseriada, the Night of Yokhor, and the Altargana), the organization of which illustrates the cultural creativity and engagement of the Buryat elite. The author introduces here the concept of “rediscovered tradition”—conducting a debate (as it were) with the concepts of tradition found in Hobsbawm and Ranger. This treatise will demonstrate conscious actions undertaken to reconstruct an ethnic cultural canon from fragments—elements of the forgotten or ebbing Buryat culture which have been rediscovered by scholars (e.g., ethnographers and historians). The ethnofestivals discussed herein do have an ultimate goal in mind: to build a modern, culturally unified Buryat nation.

affiliation site:https://www.ils.uw.edu.pl/en/institute/staff/ewa-nowik-dziewicka/

ResearchGate:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ewa-Nowicka-3

Daugavpils University, Latvia

Alīna Romanovska

Alīna Romanovska, PhD, is a researcher at the Center of Cultural Research of the Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences at Daugavpils University, Latvia. Her research interests are identity, contemporary Latvian culture, and comparative literature. She has more than 60 publications and is the author of a monograph. She has managed or participated in several international and national research projects, for example, The Seventh Framework Programme, Interreg, The National Research Programme “Letonika.”

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Diaspora Festivals as a Way for Development of Cultural Identity in the Regional City: the Case of Daugavpils (Latvia).” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 61‒78.

Diasporas’ festivals are mechanisms for the reflection, determination, and development of a cultural identity. The aim of the research is to examine how
diasporas’ festivals influence cultural environment and identities of people of various ethnic origins (Latvian, Russian, Polish, and Belarusian) in the Latvian regional cross-border city of Daugavpils. The quantitative dominance of the Slavic (Russian, Polish, Belarusian) diasporas over the Latvian population is a specific feature of Daugavpils. The analysis is based on the findings of the semi-structured interviews with youth groups from various ethnic groups (Latvian, Russian, Polish, and Belarusian) in the area of diasporas’ culture as well as the content analysis of the city’s official mass media and the semiotic analysis of the festivals’ events. In addition, the research provides an insight into Latvia’s historic development and the process of formation of the national identity. Although the aim of any diaspora is to preserve its own cultural traditions and features, the research presents interaction and creolization of different cultural traditions, which is determined by the multicultural cross-border environment, the creativity in organizing public festivals, and the consumer society’s interests.

affiliation site:https://du.lv/en/research/institutes-and-centres/institute-of-comparative-studies/

ResearchGate:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alina-Romanovska-2

ORCID iD:https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7048-4352

ResearcherID:http://www.researcherid.com/rid/G-6926-2016

Google Scholar:https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=gdctrsAAAAAJ&hl=en

Academia:https://dulv.academia.edu/AlinaRomanovska

LinkedIn:https://lv.linkedin.com/in/al%C4%ABna-romanovska-a441b710a

University of Bergen, Norway

Jerzy Nykiel

Jerzy Nykiel is an assistant professor at the Department of Foreign Languages, University of Bergen, Norway. He was awarded a PhD degree from the University of Silesia in 2007. Up till 2014 he worked as an assistant professor at the University of Silesia. In 2012/2013, he spent a year at the Arizona State University, USA, as a Fulbright visiting researcher. His early research interests revolved around paths of development of modal verbs in English and 2010 saw the publication of his book Expressing Obligation in Old English (published by the University of Silesia). Since then he has authored and co­authored a number of publications on the grammaticalization of English adverbial subordinators, grammaticalization cycles, as well as on the development of the reduced variant of the definite article in the history of English.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “So that in clauses of result and purpose in Middle English.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 354‒368.

The subordinator so that is known to function as a subordinator of finite clauses of purpose and finite clauses of result both in present-day English and throughout the history of English. I argue in this study that the pairing of these two functions in one subordinator is nowhere near a coincidence and that the result function of so that chronologically precedes the purpose function. Much focus is placed on the ambiguous contexts between clauses of result and purpose. The ME data analyzed in this study shows that there are two types of so that clauses ambiguous between result and purpose. Ultimately, this ambiguity facilitates reanalysis of the result subordinator so that as a purpose subordinator so that.

Adam Mickiewicz Univ. in Poznań, Poland

Dawid Pietrala

Currently employed in the Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. Dawid Pietrala defended his doctoral dissertation in 2015. He is the co­author of two innovative primary school and kindergarten curricula – E-­teacher of science, and Tablit – an innovative kindergarten curriculum. He specializes in English linguistics (phonetics and phonology), building software tools which enhance linguistic analysis, new methods of teaching and learning, as well as academic entrepreneurship.

Published with Æ Academic:

Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, ―― (2020) “The NAD Phonotactic Calculator – an online tool to calculate cluster preferability across languages.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 445‒458.

This paper presents the Net Auditory Distance (NAD) phonotactic calculator which can be used for calculating preferability of consonant clusters. The concept of measuring the preferability is grounded in the NAD model of phonotactics which derives from the theory of Beats-and-Binding Phonology (Dziubalska-Kołaczyk 2002): NAD calculation is based on the computation of relations between place of articulation (POA), manner of articulation (MOA) and sonorant-obstruent dichotomy of sounds which are part of the cluster. The values of the parameters are language-specific. So far, the values for the calculations in seven languages have been made available in the calculator: Polish, English, German, Russian, Ukrainian, Croatian and Georgian. The tool is accessible online at http://wa.amu.edu.pl/nadcalc/ and is regularly updated by the authors.

Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland

Maria Piotrowska

Prof. dr hab. Maria Piotrowska to tłumaczka, nauczycielka i badaczka przekładu, pracująca na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim. Jest kierowniczką Katedry do Badań nad Przekładem i Komunikacją Międzykulturową na Wydziale Filologicznym UJ, przewodniczącą CTER, a także autorką i recenzentką publikacji przekładoznawczych. Do zainteresowań badawczych autorki należą m.in. przekładoznawstwo, metodyka i dydaktyka przekładu, tłumaczenie strategiczne czy też pragmatyka interkulturowa. Autorka należy do wielu organizacji, w tym Summer School Scholarship Committee. Wśród jej licznych publikacji można wymienić „Revisiting the Translator Competence in the 21st Century” z 2015 roku, „A Landscape with the Translator Figure” z 2014 roku oraz książkę zatytułowaną Challenges in Translation Pedagogy (2014).

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Aplikacja modelu badawczego ARTS w tłumaczeniu” | “The Application of the Research Model ARTS in Translation.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 203–214.

Po nakreśleniu kierunków rozwoju przekładoznawstwa w oparciu o bazę tematyczną kongresów EST i krótkim przedstawieniu chronologii zwrotów w badaniach przekładoznawczych, autorka prezentuje konkretny model badawczy ARTS, który jest propozycją połączenia teorii funkcjonalistycznych
w przekładoznawstwie z praktyką tłumaczeniową. Celem aplikacji ARTS jest wykorzystanie teoretycznej refleksji przekładoznawczej do wprowadzania konkretnych działań tłumaczeniowych. Ilustracją zastosowania modelu jest przedstawiona w artykule analiza jednostki tłumaczeniowej The Katzenjammer Kids. Wnioski płynące z przeprowadzonych rozważań dotyczą procesu decyzyjnego tłumacza oraz wpływu uwarunkowań kulturowych na tworzenie znaczenia w tłumaczeniu.

Having presented directions of development in Translation Studies, based on themes of subsequent European Society for Translation Studies Congresses; as well as the chronology of changes and turns in translation research, the author presents the Action Research in Translation Studies (ARTS) model, which combines functionalist theories in TS with translation practice. ARTS aims at using theoretical cogitation in TS in order to introduce specific translation activities. The application of the ARTS model is illustrated here by the analysis of the Katzenjammer Kids translation unit. The conclusions regard the translator’s decision process and the influence of cultural conditioning on the creation of meaning in translation.

independent

Joanna Rabęda

Joanna Rabęda completed her BA in English (teaching specialization) and is currently majoring in language and communication in the media at the Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. Her interests include (historical) sociolinguistics, media discourse, and teaching/learning languages. At present, she is conducting an MA research on the presentation of women in Walt Disney’s animated films.

Published with Æ Academic:

Radosław Dylewski, Magdalena Bator, ―― (2020) ““I remain(s)” and “but remain(s)”: Variation in the use of the 3rd person singular marker in American private letters from the mid-19th century.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 417‒444.

The present paper focuses on the analysis of the formulaic expressions with the verb remain, which were used as letter closing formulae in private correspondence during the American Civil War. Sequences comprising one of the phrases: I/we remain(s) and but/only/so/still/etc. remain(s) were scrutinized in order to verify whether Dylewski’s claim (2018) that the origin of the two types of formulae took different paths of development holds true as regards highly homogenous material produced by uneducated writers. The study was based on over four thousand letters written by soldiers and their relatives, compiled and digitized in Private Voices on-line repository.

University of Lausanne, Switzerland

Monika Salzbrunn

Monika Salzbrunn, Full Professor of Religions, Migration, Diasporas at the University of Lausanne, is principal investigator of the ERC Consolidator Grant project on ARTIVISM—Art and Activism. Creativity and performance as subversive means of political expression in super-diverse cities. She has published numerous articles about festive events and participated in the MUCEM Marseille exhibition on Euro-Mediterranean carnivals. She is member of the research group POPADIVCIT, Popular Arts, Diversity and Cultural Policies in Post-Migration Urban Settings of the European Excellence Network IMISCOE, and associated researcher at CéSOR/EHESS Paris.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “The Swiss Carnivals of Payerne and Lausanne: Place-making between the mise en scène of Self and the Other(s).” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 19‒34.

The Swiss cities of Lausanne and Payerne are growing increasingly diverse, with 42% and 38% of their populations comprised of foreign residents respectively. How does this diversity impact festive traditions as well as the way cultural self-identification is put on stage? The Brandons de Payerne, a local carnival that has been celebrated 120 times since 1870, tends to put the imagined other on stage (the French, the Roma, etc.). These celebrations are strongly interconnected with city life, history and governance. Whereas several floats in the past expressed ambiguous messages and stereotypes of particular groups, in 2017, a giant swimming pool with women wearing burkinis was meant to symbolize a message for tolerance. The aim of the present chapter is to analyze the way representations of alterity are performed in Payerne. In the last part of this chapter, I provide a counter-example of a different, more recent festive event in order to highlight my findings by contrasting them with a case where certain groups do not perform the other but themselves during carnival: In Lausanne, the picture is slightly different and the carnival tradition more recent. A Fête du Soleil was invented in 1982 and became in 1996 the Carnaval de Lausanne. Responding to a general European demand for exoticism, the organizers have incorporated immigrant groups as such, turning the initial classic carnivalesque Othering by masquerades into a reification of the (invented) Self.

affiliation site:https://www.unil.ch/issr/home/menuinst/chercheurseuses/salzbrunn-monika/page-en-anglais.html

ResearchGate:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Monika-Salzbrunn

ORCID iD:https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5951-8571

Academia:https://unil.academia.edu/MonikaSalzbrunn

LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/today/author/monika-salzbrunn-3a578782

University of Munich, Germany

Hans Sauer

Hans Sauer is professor emeritus of English Philology at the Ludwig­ Maximilians­ Universität (LMU) in Munich, Germany. He has also taught at many other universities, e.g. for several years at the Gallus Academy in Katowice, Poland, at the Vistula University in Warsaw, Poland, and at Würzburg University, Germany. His research interests and publications include editions and studies of medieval English texts, e.g. Beowulf, furthermore word-­formation, glosses, glossaries and lexicography, plant names, interjections and binomials. Some of his recent book publications are: Binomials in the History of English, ed. J. Kopaczyk & Hans Sauer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017); Aspects of Medieval English Language and Literature, ed. M. Ogura & Hans Sauer (Berlin: Peter Lang, 2018); Hans Sauer & E. Kubaschewski, Planting the Seeds of Knowledge: An Inventory of Old English Plant Names (Munich: Utz, 2018); Hans Sauer & Kerstin Majewski, My First Door to English Linguistics (Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 2020).

Published with Æ Academic:

――, Piotr Chruszczewski (eds.) (2020) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing.

―― (2020) “Medieval Multitasking: Hoccleve translates Christine de Pizan and imitates Chaucer, for example his binomials.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 175‒202.

Christine de Pizan wrote her French poem Epistre au dieu d’amours ‘Letter of the God of Love’ in 1399; Thomas Hoccleve rendered it into Middle English only three years later, in 1402, under the title Epistre de Cupide ‘Letter of Cupid.’ He shortened Christine’s 822 lines to 476 lines and also changed many details; therefore the two versions are difficult to compare. I concentrate on Hoccleve’s use of binomials and multinomials, analyzing their word-class, etymology, semantic structure, sequence of elements, and their formulaicity. I also briefly mention later versions and translations. It is well-known that Hoccleve was a Chaucerian, which also shows in his use of binomials: Hoccleve shares 13 binomials with Chaucer, e.g. (in Modern spelling) ‘crop and root,’ ‘a duchess or a queen,’ ‘labour and travail,’ ‘last and endure.’ It is perhaps more striking that many of Hoccleve’s binomials also occur in the poetry of his contemporary Lydgate. It would be interesting to pursue this in greater detail.

Yerevan State University, Armenia

Tigran Simyan

Tigran Simyan, Dr. habil. in Philology, is a professor at Yerevan State University, Department of Foreign Literature. He is a member of the German Society for Semiotics (“Deutsche Gesellschaft für Semiotik”). He has been a visiting scholar in the framework of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the Catholic Academic Exchange Service (KAAD). He is a member of the editorial boards of a range of scholarly journals, such as Critique and Semiotics (Russia), Critique and Semiotics (Georgia), Journal of Visual Semiotics (Russia), Comparative Studies (Latvia), as well as a member of the editorial council of ΠΡΑΞΗMΑ. His main scientific expertise lies in the semiotic problems of literature and culture, the history of German literature, and the history of methodology for the human sciences.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Transformations of New Year Celebration in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Era: the Cases of Armenia and Latvia.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 163‒177.

The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the most remarkable transformations of New Year celebrations in Armenia and Latvia—countries with
a shared collective memory and inherited Soviet identity. The research focuses on two culture-historical periods: (1) the Soviet period when the countries were seen as peripheries opposed to the center (Moscow), and (2) the post-Soviet period when after the collapse of authoritarianism and restoration of independence in the 1990s, the re-established national cultural values emerged to co-exist with effectively ingrained former Soviet celebration traditions. The results obtained in the research confirm that New Year celebration traditions in the Soviet and post-Soviet eras were crucially influenced by the political change promoting transformations in the nations’ festive traditions and in provoking the emergence of a hybrid national identity. The research
was carried out by applying the cultural-historical approach, frame analysis, content analysis, and comparative analysis.

affiliation site:http://ysu.am/science/en/Tigran-Simyan

affiliation site:http://ysu.am/persons/en/Tigran-Simyan

ORCID iD:https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9534-3505

ResearchGate:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tigran-Simyan

Google Scholar:https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=nsBRczkAAAAJ&hl=en

Scopus Author ID:https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=57202389615

Academia:https://yerevan.academia.edu/TigranSimyan

LinkedIn:https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwix1-G51M3wAhVEtZ4KHQu5CqAQFjABegQIAhAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fam.linkedin.com%2Fin%2Ftigran-simyan-457a2162&usg=AOvVaw32h2FV0DGFabl2cKn3qOGD

University of Wrocław, Poland

Wojciech Soliński

Prof. dr hab. Wojciech Marian Soliński jest literaturoznawcą, teoretykiem literatury, translatologiem, tłumaczem. Kieruje Zakładem Teorii Literatury Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Tłumaczy z języka włoskiego, słowackiego oraz czeskiego. Wiele publikacji poświęcił postaci Umberto Eco oraz jego twórczości – m.in. „Umberto Eco w polskich historiach literatury włoskiej” (2016) i „Umberta Eco powieści profesorskie” (2015). W roku 2014 ukazało się jego tłumaczenie na polski książki Bohumila Hrabala Złocieńka.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Niektóre problemy jednego tłumaczenia i dwóch polskich wydań książki Umberta Eco La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea” | “La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea: On Some Difficulties with Umberto Eco’s Book. One Translation and Two Polish Editions.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 434–444.

Autor tego krótkiego szkicu, stara się zwrócić uwagę na niektóre problemy tłumaczenia tekstów nieliterackich, na podstawie własnych doświadczeń z przekładem na język polski książki Umberto Eco pt. La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea. Skupia się, przy tej okazji: na „poetyce” tytułu, seryjności ontologii przekładów nieliterackich i – sprawiającej tłumaczowi najwięcej trudności – wielojęzyczności dyskursu.

This short outline attempts to identify some problematic issues that may occur during translation of non-literary texts. The author focuses on a title’s “poetics,” seriality of non-literary translation ontologies and multilingualism of discourse. The author’s experience that he derived from the translation of Umberto Eco’s book entitled La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea is highly influential for this text.

 

Tygodnik Powszechny, Poland

Artur Sporniak

Artur Sporniak jest kierownikiem działu „Wiara” w Tygodniku Powszechnym oraz współautorem siedmiu książek. Interesuje się religią, etyką – zwłaszcza katolicką etyką seksualną oraz problemami na styku wiary i nauki. Prowadzi bloga Kościół – seks – moralność. W redakcji Tygodnika Powszechnego jest
od 1993 r.

Published with Æ Academic:

Marcin Majewski, ――, Teresa Szostek, Michał Czajkowski (2018) “Cenzura w Biblii” | “Censorship in the Bible.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 166–183.

Artykuł skupia się na analizie wywiadu dotyczącego przekładu Biblii oraz związanej z nim cenzury. Autorka komentuje wypowiedzi jednego z rozmówców wzbogacając je o własne przemyślenia i analizy. Tłumacze Pisma Świętego łagodzą niektóre fragmenty, jak chociażby refren w Pieśni nad Pieśniami, który w większości przekładów wspomina „obejmowanie”, podczas gdy Biblia protestancka zawiera właściwy przekład, mówiąc o pieszczeniu. Podobnie tłumacze poprawiają Biblię, mając inne wyobrażenie o tym jak powinien wyglądać tekst sakralny, wprowadzają na przykład wyrażenia neutralne zamiast wulgaryzmów. Według Czajkowskiego tłumacze często cenzurują Biblię, próbując złagodzić tekst. Czasami rozbieżności wynikają jednak z niezrozumienia tekstu biblijnego. Nie zawsze jednak różnice w tłumaczeniach wynikają z pracy tłumacza. Jest tak na przykład w przypadku słowa „pneuma”, które może oznaczać ducha, słowo pisane małą literą, lub Ducha Świętego. Autor nie popiera jednak tłumaczenia „inkluzywnego”. Tekstu natchnionego nie powinno się zmieniać. Zmiany tego typu można zastąpić wyjaśnieniami czy komentarzami. Aby odkryć pierwotne znaczenie Pisma Świętego najlepiej jest porównać jeden z przekładów polskich z przekładami obcojęzycznymi lub innymi przekładami polskimi.

The article focuses on the analysis of an interview regarding Bible translation and related censorship. The author comments on the statements of one of the interlocutors, adding her own insights and analyses. Bible translators make certain parts of the text more approachable, as was the case with the refrain to Song of Songs, which, in most translations, mentions “embracing” while the protestant Bible contains the correct translation, i.e. “caressing.” Similarly, translators correct the Bible, as they have a different notion of what a sacral text should look like. For example, they introduce neutral phrases instead of offensive words. In Czajkowski’s opinion, translators often censor the Bible, trying to make the text less blunt. However, sometimes discrepancies are a result of not understanding the original text. Not always are these differences a consequence of the translator’s work, though. It is clearly visible e.g. in the case of “pneuma,” a word which can be translated into ghost or soul, spelled with a small letter, or the Holy Ghost. The author does not support the so-called “inclusive” translation. The inspired text should not be changed. Such changes can be replaced with explanations or comments. In order to discover the original meaning of the Holy Scripture, one can compare one of the Polish translations with translations into other foreign languages or other translations into Polish.

Siedlce U. of Nat. Sciences & Humanities, PL

Joanna Stolarek

―― (2017) “American South in the face of European fascism in Katherine Anne Porter’s Ship of Fools and Carson McCullers’s The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 45–66.

The aim of this article is to scrutinize the problem of alienation and marginalization in the face of social and political hegemony in Europe and its reverberations in the southern states of the USA in Katherine Anne Porter’s Ship of Fools (1962) and Carson McCullers’s The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter (1940). The emphasis is placed on the examination of the two novels with reference to their exploration of the roots of European Fascism and the conditions that favored its rise. The author of the article analyzes the issues of ethnic discrimination and social exclusion in Ship of Fools versus racial conflicts and the problem of hegemony saturating The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, along with the books’ central motifs, such as search for identity, crisis of intercultural dialogue, and social dislocation. Despite the novels’ thematic and structural dissimilarities, they accurately display the spirit of the interwar period, existential anxiety, and deep concern with the emergence of the dictatorial ideologies, which inevitably led to social marginalization and exclusion of a number of individuals.

University of Wrocław, Poland

Teresa Szostek

Dr hab. prof. UWr (em.) Teresa Szostek jest filologiem klasycznym (latynistą–mediewistą–neolatynistą). W 1984 roku obroniła doktorat w IBL PAN, w 1999 habilitację w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim; w latach 2002–2017 (do przejścia na emeryturę) jako profesor nadzwyczajny Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego pracowała jako organizator i wykładowca; w tym w latach 2003–2012 na studiach MISH; pełniła też funkcję pełnomocnika JM Rektora w Akademii „Artes Liberales”. Jej główne zainteresowania badawcze oscylują wokół krótkich prozaicznych form literackich (np. exempla); literatury łacińskiej (starożytność – średniowiecze) oraz form jej przetrwania (paleografia łacińska).

Published with Æ Academic:

Marcin Majewski, Artur Sporniak, ――, Michał Czajkowski (2018) “Cenzura w Biblii” | “Censorship in the Bible.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 166–183.

Artykuł skupia się na analizie wywiadu dotyczącego przekładu Biblii oraz związanej z nim cenzury. Autorka komentuje wypowiedzi jednego z rozmówców wzbogacając je o własne przemyślenia i analizy. Tłumacze Pisma Świętego łagodzą niektóre fragmenty, jak chociażby refren w Pieśni nad Pieśniami, który w większości przekładów wspomina „obejmowanie”, podczas gdy Biblia protestancka zawiera właściwy przekład, mówiąc o pieszczeniu. Podobnie tłumacze poprawiają Biblię, mając inne wyobrażenie o tym jak powinien wyglądać tekst sakralny, wprowadzają na przykład wyrażenia neutralne zamiast wulgaryzmów. Według Czajkowskiego tłumacze często cenzurują Biblię, próbując złagodzić tekst. Czasami rozbieżności wynikają jednak z niezrozumienia tekstu biblijnego. Nie zawsze jednak różnice w tłumaczeniach wynikają z pracy tłumacza. Jest tak na przykład w przypadku słowa „pneuma”, które może oznaczać ducha, słowo pisane małą literą, lub Ducha Świętego. Autor nie popiera jednak tłumaczenia „inkluzywnego”. Tekstu natchnionego nie powinno się zmieniać. Zmiany tego typu można zastąpić wyjaśnieniami czy komentarzami. Aby odkryć pierwotne znaczenie Pisma Świętego najlepiej jest porównać jeden z przekładów polskich z przekładami obcojęzycznymi lub innymi przekładami polskimi.

The article focuses on the analysis of an interview regarding Bible translation and related censorship. The author comments on the statements of one of the interlocutors, adding her own insights and analyses. Bible translators make certain parts of the text more approachable, as was the case with the refrain to Song of Songs, which, in most translations, mentions “embracing” while the protestant Bible contains the correct translation, i.e. “caressing.” Similarly, translators correct the Bible, as they have a different notion of what a sacral text should look like. For example, they introduce neutral phrases instead of offensive words. In Czajkowski’s opinion, translators often censor the Bible, trying to make the text less blunt. However, sometimes discrepancies are a result of not understanding the original text. Not always are these differences a consequence of the translator’s work, though. It is clearly visible e.g. in the case of “pneuma,” a word which can be translated into ghost or soul, spelled with a small letter, or the Holy Ghost. The author does not support the so-called “inclusive” translation. The inspired text should not be changed. Such changes can be replaced with explanations or comments. In order to discover the original meaning of the Holy Scripture, one can compare one of the Polish translations with translations into other foreign languages or other translations into Polish.

Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland

Elżbieta Tabakowska

Profesor Elżbieta Tabakowska jest uznaną specjalistką w dziedzinie językoznawstwa kognitywnego i translatologii, a także tłumaczką języka angielskiego. Założyła Katedrę UNESCO do Badań nad Przekładem i Komunikacją Międzykulturową przy Wydziale Filologicznym UJ. Jest autorką takich publikacji naukowych jak Cognitive Linguistics and Poetics of Translation, Gramatyka i obrazowanie: Wstęp do językoznawstwa kognitywnego. Przełożyła także na polski kilka książek Normana Daviesa. Jej własna praktyka translatorska przy tłumaczeniu dzieł historyka zaowocowała dwiema interesującymi książkami, O przekładzie na przykładzie: Rozprawa tłumacza z Europą Normana Daviesa oraz Tłumacząc się z tłumaczenia, w których zdała relację ze złożonego procesu pracy nad polskimi wydaniami Europy, Wysp oraz Powstania ’44. Jest doskonała zarówno jako teoretyk, jak i pełen pasji praktyk tłumaczenia.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “O obecności tłumacza” | “On Translator’s Presence.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 152–165.

Dociekania niniejszego artykułu koncentrują się wokół poszukiwań roli tłumacza, który z perspektywy czasu pełnił już wiele ról, takich jak np. „czystej szyby”, „sprawnego interfejsu”, w zależności od perspektywy osoby opisującej. Tłumacz stanowiący swego rodzaju podmiot wnikliwej analizy teoretyków przekładu, dziś zaczyna być traktowany jako człowiek, który ma prawo do podejmowania decyzji, świadomych decyzji, a on sam jest źródłem, którego tłumaczenie można interpretować. Z uwagi na nieuchronność obecności tłumacza w przekładanym tekście, warto spojrzeć
na tekst źródłowy przez pryzmat tłumacza i zanalizować jego decyzje. Podstawą teoretyczną do niniejszych rozważań jest model Langackera traktujący o wyborze środków językowych, które najlepiej wyrażą intencje użytkownika języka; teoria metafory George’a Lakoffa opisująca sposób myślenia oraz Georges’a Lüdi, którego rozważania koncentrowały sie na opisie znaków pozostawianych przez tłumacza w przekładanym tekście. Analiza tekstów zaczerpniętych z Biblii Wujka, Biblii Brytyjskiego Zagranicznego Towarzystwa Biblijnego i Biblii Tynieckiej wykazała, iż tłumacz jako podmiot stanowi źródło badań, których kierunek zmienił się w ostatnich latach.

The following text concentrates on the presence of the translator, who plays a multitude of roles in the life of translatology, e.g “transparent glass” or “efficient interface,” depending on the perspective. The translator, currently seen as an object of analysis by theorists of translation, is treated as a person entitled to make decisions, conscious decisions, and who becomes a source whose translation may be interpreted. Due to the inevitability of the translator’s presence in the translated text, it is worth looking at the source text through the translator’s eyes and analyzing his or her decisions. The theoretical background of this article is Langacker’s model pertaining to the choice of linguistic means that convey the language-user’s intentions best; Lakoff’s theory of metaphors; and George Lüdi’s theory of marks left by the translator in the translated text. The analyzed texts have been taken from the different translations of the Bible such as: the Jakub Wujek Bible, New International Version, and the Millennium Bible. The analysis proves that the translator as a subject is a source of research whose direction has changed in the recent years.

Fribourg U., Switzerland; U. of E. Anglia, ENG

Peter Trudgill

Peter Trudgill is a theoretical dialectologist who has held professorships at the Universities of Reading, Essex, and Lausanne. He is currently professor emeritus of English Linguistics at Fribourg University, Switzerland, and honorary professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of East Anglia, England. He has honorary doctorates from the Universities of Uppsala, East Anglia, La Trobe, British Columbia, Patras and Murcia. He is the author of Dialects in Contact; New-dialect Formation: The Inevitability of Colonial Englishes; and Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “East Anglia as an Old English and Middle English Dialect Area.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 294‒304.

Surviving Old English texts from East Anglia are non-existent, and we struggle with the traditional story that Old English dialects were simply divided into four groups: Northumbrian; Kentish; West Saxon; and Mercian, which supposedly covered the whole of England from Chester to Bristol, the Humber to the Thames, and the Welsh border to the East Anglian coast. But there is every reason to suppose that such a large region must have been much more linguistically differentiated than this and to argue that East Anglia formed a dialect area of its own. In a highly insightful contribution, Jacek Fisiak argued that it is possible to employ evidence from place-names and personal names to support this argument. He also demonstrated how we can employ retrodiction to make use of evidence for East Anglian distinctiveness from later periods, for which there is more evidence.

Kobe U., Japan / U. of Cape Town, South Africa

Kiyoshi Umeya

Kiyoshi Umeya, a graduate of Hitotsubashi University (PhD), Professor of Social Anthropology at the Graduate School for Intercultural Studies at Kobe University and Visiting Professor at the University of Cape Town. He has carried out fieldwork among the Jopadhola in Eastern Uganda extensively since 1997, as Research Fellow at Makerere University. His book, The Gospel Sounds like the Witch’s Spell: Ethnographic Aetiology Concerning Misfortune among Jopadhola, Eastern Uganda, Tokyo: Fukyoshya (2018, in Japanese) attempts to reveal cosmology and ontology of Jopadhola, an ethnic group of Western Nilotes. He recently co-edited a book, Citizenship in Motion: South African and Japanese Scholars in Conversation, Bamenda: Langaa RPCIG (2019).

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Feasts to Send-off the Dead: with Special Reference to the Jopadhola of Eastern Uganda.” [In:] Bożena Gierek, Wojciech Kosior (eds.) Feast as a Mirror of Social and Cultural Changes. (Beyond Language 6). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 79‒98.

 Taking the example of Jopadhola in Eastern Uganda, this chapter indicates that the feast conducted by the deceased one’s okewo (a male child of a daughter who has left the family due to marriage) after each ritual during the series of funeral rituals has a significant social meaning. Alcohol functions as a way to ease social reintegration of the deceased one, the bereaved family, and other community members during the ritual by serving as a communication tool among the dead and the living. People have been reducing the scale of this feast in the past few years for financial reasons. While this is intended only as a reflection of the modern status of this society, it has led to an unexpected result; it has become a cosmological issue as well,
as it leads to relinquishing the method for properly controlling the power or agency of the dead. The Jopadhola believe that people who are unable to send out the dead properly are threatened by the curses of the dead. Based on primary materials obtained from anthropological fieldwork conducted during my long-term residency in the community, this chapter describes the dialectics of modernity and autochthony.

affiliation site:http://web.cla.kobe-u.ac.jp/teacher-en2/umeya-kiyoshi

KAKEN:https://nrid.nii.ac.jp/en/nrid/1000080405894/

ResearchGate:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kiyoshi-Umeya

Google Scholar:https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=m99Jgg8AAAAJ&hl=ja

University of Florence, Italy

Letizia Vezzosi

Letizia Vezzosi is currently a full professor of Germanic Philology at the University of Florence, Italy. After a PhD in Linguistics and Romance and Germanic Philology, she was granted several scholarships from national and international foundations, including the Alexander Von Humboldt Foundation, for her research projects on genitive patterns in Middle Dutch, possessives in English, and reciprocity and intensifiers in Old English and Middle English. She is co­director of the on­line journal Medioevo Europeo and member of the editorial committee of Filologia Germanica – Germanic Philology Journal. She is the author of La sintassi della subordinazione in anglosassone and Il medio nederlandese. She is presently working on a new edition and translation of the Middle English poem “Saint Erkenwald.”

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “When a lexical borrowing becomes an ideological tool: the case of Saint Erkenwald.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 150‒174.

The nature of Middle English lexicon is characterized by the import of a massive number of loanwords, due to the high social and cultural prestige of French and Latin and the intimate contact between English and Old Norse as well as to lexical gaps. Therefore, lexical borrowings have traditionally been studied in terms of register, style and dialect. Based on the observation that literary texts (even if medieval) are the results of literariness, the present paper aims to investigate the rhetoric usage of foreign words. In particular, the usage of French and Scandinavian borrowings and their occurrence in binominals in Saint Erkenwald will be examined in order to establish whether the author’s choice of a particular word can be accounted for as a means to convey special meanings or obtain special rhetoric effects.

Silesian University in Opava, Czech Republic

Michaela Weiss

―― (2017) “Multilingualism in American Jewish literature: Irena Klepfisz’s Yiddish  Revival.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language; San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 67–87.

The paper analyses the functions and importance of multilingualism in American Jewish literature, with special attention paid to the poetry of an American Jewish poet of Polish origin, Irena Klepfisz, who in her most recent poems intertwines Yiddish and English. For her, America is a linguistic and cultural exile, not a place she would call home. That is why she started to fuse these languages. Unlike the previous writers, she does not use Yiddish to add a specific cultural coloring to the text but to emphasize the different linguistic and cultural experience that is closely connected with the language. She feels that, as the language of immigrants, English cannot depict the Holocaust and the world of Yiddishkayt correctly. That is why Klepfisz retorts to multilingual poetry to transcend the borders between nations and cultures, and offer a mirror or a reference point for each other. Moreover, a bilingual text can be viewed as a way for a non-English text to gain wider audience and acceptance, and, at the same time, to start influencing and changing the view of America and its people.

University of Łódź, Poland

Andrzej Wicher

Andrzej Wicher teaches history of English literature in the Institute of English Studies at the University of Łódź, Poland. Professor Wicher’s field of research is Medieval and Renaissance studies, cultural studies, and modern fantasy literature, with a special emphasis on the presence of folktale motifs in works of literature. Apart from numerous scholarly articles, he is the author of the following books: Archaeology of the Sublime: Studies in Late-Medieval English Writings (Katowice 1995), Shakespeare’s Parting Wondertales—a Study of the Elements of the Tale of Magic in William Shakespeare’s Late Plays (Łódź 2003), and Selected Medieval and Religious Themes in the Works of C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien (Łódź 2013). He also translated some Middle English poems, including “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight” and “The Pearl,” into Polish.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “The question of Beowulf’s relation to fairy tales revisited.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 114‒138.

The question of Beowulf’s link with a specific type of fairy tales, particularly AT 301 The Bear’s Son (The Three Stolen Princesses), has been extensively discussed by many critics and scholars, including the magisterial studies by W. W. Lawrence and R. W. Chambers. The main similarities, and the no less striking differences, between Beowulf and AT 301, are well known. We have also J.R.R. Tolkien’s ambitious and poetical attempt to reconstruct the folktale that was, apparently, behind Beowulf entitled Sellic Spell, which, in Old English, means „wonderful tale.” It would, naturally, be presumptuous to try to find out whether Tolkien’s attempt was successful or not, and its value, as a piece of literary archaeology, is disputable, and is likely to remain so. But some work needs to be done, it seems, on the connection between Beowulf and the fairy tale understood as a genre, not necessarily a specific type of it. In trying to achieve this aim, I should be guided by such folklore and fairy tale scholars as V. Propp or M. Lüthi, rather than by A. Aarne and S. Thompson, even though I am very far from dismissing the value of their Types of the Folk-Tale.

Siedlce U. of Nat. Sciences & Humanities, PL

Jarosław Wiliński

―― (2017) “Cognitive motivation for idiom variation in a learner’s dictionary: Explaining cross-cultural and cross-linguistic differences in the use of British and American idioms.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 157–183.

This paper employs a cognitive semantic approach to idiomatic expressions as motivated linguistic units. Much attention is focused on lexicographic applications of the concept of motivation to the elucidation of idiomatic meaning in a pedagogical dictionary of idioms intended for Polish language learners at the upper-intermediate and/or advanced level of English; particularly, on the applicability of conceptual metaphors, metonymies, and conventional knowledge to the explication of cross-cultural and cross-linguistic differences in the use of British and American idioms. It is argued that cognitive semantic ways of presenting idiomatic phrases in a learner’s dictionary of idioms can be expected to be especially beneficial for fostering users’ comprehension and retention of the meaning of those phrases.

Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland

Alicja Witalisz

Alicja Witalisz is a professor of English Linguistics at the Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland. Her research interests include language contacts, lexicology and lexicography, language change, corpus linguistics, theory of linguistic borrowing and linguistic globalization. She has published extensively on English–Polish language contacts, (co­)edited several academic volumes and authored three monographs: Przewodnik po anglicyzmach w języku polskim (TMJP PAN, 2016); English Loan Translations in Polish: Word-formation Patterns, Lexicalization, Idiomaticity and Institutionalization (Peter Lang, 2015); Anglosemantyzmy w języku polskim – ze słownikiem (Tertium, 2007). She is a member of several academic associations, reviewer for Polish and international journals, and member of the Editorial Boards of Polish Linguistic Society Journal and Tertium Linguistic Journal.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2020) “Problems in studying loan translation.” [In:] Hans Sauer, Piotr P. Chruszczewski (eds.) Mostly Medieval: In Memory of Jacek Fisiak. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 476‒494.

The paper addresses selected key theoretical and methodological problems in studying loan translations, related to their definition, typology, identification, extraction, verification and other minor issues. While European and American language contact literature abounds in multilingual examples of loan translations and in their varied typologies, relatively little attention has been devoted to the problems concerning their identification, contact-induced status and corpus-assisted verification. The paper offers a brief overview of loan translation terminology and typologies, terminological conflicts, and provides a set of linguistic and extralinguistic identification criteria useful in the recognition of loan translations, followed by a comment on the limitations of electronic search tools in the automatic extraction and analysis of loan translations. Despite the problematic issues involved in the studying of covert loans, the paper concludes with an expression of the need for extensive cross-linguistic corpus-based studies on one- and multi-word loan translations sourced in English, which is the current donor of Pan-European idiomatic expressions.

independent

Anna Wortman

―― (2017) “The United States – a nation of immigrants: Multiculturalism and the American democracy.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 88–105.

Although the ideology of multiculturalism is a  product of 20th century political thought and an ethical and political response to multiethnic societies, it seems that the American political system has long before accommodated and fostered the development of its own multicultural society with all its benefits and conflicts. The fact that American identity is determined by ideological commitment to American values, rather than by place of birth, makes the United States an incredibly flexible and adoptable society, ready to absorb anyone who can claim allegiance to the American Creed and the American Exceptionalism. Therefore, even the present-day controversy over the wide influx from South America to the United States resonates the earlier debates of the 19th century over immigrants from Asia or Southern and Eastern Europe. All of those concerns proved wrong, and the American society preserved its values and was strengthened and enriched by the wide diversity of the immigrant cultures. The aim of this article is to look into the different approaches adopted throughout time in the United States in reference to the administration of the multicultural and multiethnic society and to provide evidence that the American political system, established in the 18th century, has been promoting the development of a multicultural society ever since its origin, starting long before the ideology of multiculturalism was born in the twentieth century.

Siedlce U. of Nat. Sciences & Humanities, PL

Agnieszka Wróbel

―― (2017) “Culture awareness as a key to successful communication in English as a foreign language.” [In:] Joanna Stolarek, Jarosław Wiliński (eds.) Cross-Cultural Communication in Literature and Language. San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 184–202.

The present paper discusses the presence of culture in TEFL and the meaning of the term “culture” in this context. The discussion includes three aspects of culture, i.e. culture of achievement, culture of behavior, and culture within the language itself and it attempts at establishing how much attention these particular cultural aspects are given and should be given in order to help learners meet the requirements of successful communication. The results emphasize the importance of building cultural and inter-cultural awareness, which is increasingly important in the English communication of the globalized world.

Rezekne Academy of Technologies, Latvia

Piotr Zazula

Dr Piotr Zazula jest poetą, eseistą i tłumaczem literatury amerykańskiej. Wykładał na Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim, dziś jego miejsce pracy to łotewska Rēzeknes Tehnoloģiju Akadēmija. W latach 1995–2001 publikował wiersze, eseje i recenzje literackie. Jest autorem tomów Sonet dla zakonnicy i Lista cu­dów.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Między przekładem a parafrazą poetycką, czyli w poszukiwaniu dominanty konceptualnej wiersza” | “Between the Translation and the Poetic Paraphrase or Looking for a Conceptual Dominant of a Poem.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 408–433.

Powszechnie przyjmuje się, że istnieje różnica między przekładem wiersza a jego parafrazą poetycką. Podczas tłumaczenia poezji nie wystarczy zachowanie rytmu, układu rymów i obrazowania. Istotny jest również rejestr stylistyczny. Należy oddać dominantę konceptualną utworu. Za pomocą stylistycznych ekwiwalentów funkcjonalnych dobry tłumacz powinien odwzorować poetycki „model świata”.

It is commonly accepted that there is a difference between a translation of a poem and its poetic paraphrase. While translating poetry it is not enough to retain the rhythm, rhymes and the imagery. Also the stylistic register is important. The translator has to reflect the conceptual dominant of a poem. Using stylistic functional equivalents a good translator should reflect the poetic “world model.”

Boston University, Boston, USA

Anna Zielińska-Elliott

Dr Anna Zielińska-Elliott jest tłumaczką literatury japońskiej. Studiowała japonistykę na Uniwersytecie Warszawskim oraz Tokijskim Uniwersytecie Studiów Międzynarodowych. Obecnie wykłada na Uniwersytecie Bostońskim w Stanach Zjednoczonych, gdzie pełni też funkcję dyrektora BU Translation Initiative. Przetłumaczyła książki Harukiego Murakamiego Przygoda z owcą, Norwegian Wood, Tańcz, tańcz, tańcz, Kronika ptaka nakręcacza, Kafka nad morzem, Po zmierzchu oraz trzy tomy 1Q84.

Published with Æ Academic:

―― (2018) “Problemy tłumaczeniowe w przekładzie prozy Harukiego Murakamiego” | “Difficulties with Translating Haruki Murakami’s Prose.” [In:] Piotr P. Chruszczewski, Aleksandra R. Knapik (eds.) Między tekstem a kulturą: z zagadnień przekładoznawstwa. (Beyond Language 1). San Diego, CA: Æ Academic Publishing; 408–433.

Twórczość Harukiego Murakamiego wyróżnia się jeśli chodzi o język w niej zastosowany. Mimo pisania w języku japońskim, Haruki Murakami często stosuje zapożyczenia z języka angielskiego, cytaty i odwołania intertekstualne. Dzięki tego typu zabiegom autor wywołuje efekt wyobcowania. Uczucie obcości jest jednak często utracone po tłumaczeniu na inne języki. W celu wyróżnienia, pokazania odrębności, samotności czy ekscentryczności, niektóre z postaci w twórczości Murakamiego mówią dialektami. Najbardziej popularne sposoby tłumaczenia wypowiedzi tego typu postaci to stworzenie fikcyjnego dialektu, zastosowanie języka kolokwialnego bądź dialektu występującego w języku docelowym, a także całkowite pominięcie faktu, że dana postać mówi dialektem i zneutralizowanie jej wypowiedzi. Anna Zielińska-Elliott zastosowała przedostatnią z wymienionych metod w jednym z utworów, Yesterday; w wersji polskiej postać mówi gwarą poznańską zamiast dialektem Kansai.

Haruki Murakami’s texts stand out when it comes to their linguistic aspects. Despite writing in Japanese, Haruki Murakami often uses English loanwords, quotes, and intertextual references. By using such stylistic devices, the author gives rise to the feeling of estrangement. This is, however, often lost when his literature is translated into other languages. To set some of the characters apart, to show that they are different, lonely or eccentric, Murakami makes them speak in dialects. The most popular methods of translating such utterances include creating a fictitious dialect, using colloquial language or a parallel dialect existing in the target language, or omitting the dialect completely, therefore neutralizing how a given character speaks. In Yesterday, one of Murakami’s works translated by Anna Zielińska-Elliott into Polish, a character originally speaking the Kansai dialect uses the  Poznań dialect.